Green Economy in the Context of Cultural Tourism: Agrotourism as an alternative form of tourism in Bali I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Economy and Humanities Department, Dhyana Pura University, Badung. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study discusses the general preview of tourism and agriculture in Bali. This data collected through survey method using questionnaires distributed to 60 respondents from four groups of farmers comprise: Bayung Gede, Candikuning, Blimbingsari, and Pelaga Villages as samples. They are local community, universities, NGOs, and local governments. The data are descriptively and statistically analyzed using SWOT analysis. This study finds that (1) the most potential opportunity of agrotourism is increasing family, followed by employee involvement, generating tourism income and increasing value of the village; (2) the hardest barriers of agrotourism development in Bali is inadequate infrastructures, other barriers are limited public facilities, imperfect human resource skills, scarce investments, and insufficient government supports; (3) the ecological resources particularly lakes, social life especially farmers and their lives, and cultural resources such as unique traditions are the strength factors of agrotourism development in Bali; (4) lacks of government support, investment, infrastructures, and human skills are weakness factors; (5) generating related tourism businesses are the most potential opportunity of agrotourism development in Bali. Other opportunities generated from agrotourism are providing local employments, increasing family incomes, and increasing value of the village; (6) degradation of natural resources regarded as the riskiest threat of agrotourism development in Bali. The second most serious matter is land using problems. Other threats are pollutions, host attitude changes, increasing criminalities, and tradition commercializations; (7) agrotourism contributes lots in improving the economy of the local communities. The contributions are on agricultural product improvements and stimulations of related tourism enterprises; (8) agrotourism helps improving the social situations particularly poverty alleviation, decreasing unemployment, and declining urbanization; (9) nature conservation is the greatest contribution toward sustainable tourism development in Bali. Other contributions are visitor increase and generating economic income.
Keywords: uniqueness, opportunities, barriers, stakeholders, farmers
Tourism has played an important role and essential source of earning. It can be evidently seen that almost all of economic activities in Bali were depended on and leaded by tourism sector. According to Pitana (2005), tourism sector is an incredible contributor to Product Domestic Regional Bruto (PDRB) for Bali. The tourism sector contributed 12.95% by 1970, 17.98% by 1990, 30.50% by 1997, 30.49% by 1998, 31.26% by 1999, and 33.19% by 2000. Examining further to the great contributions generated by tourism, therefore tourism sector in Bali is considered as an awaiting sector for now and upcoming year. Furthermore, the prospective of tourism in Bali can be seen in Chart 2 that describes the number of international visitors and the growth of arrivals to Bali for periods 1969 to 2005.
Chart 1, number of direct international visitors to bali for periods 1969 to 2005 Source: Bali Tourism Board, 2006
Chart 1 also indicates that the growth of international tourists visiting Bali since 1969 to 2005 fluctuated by mean of 559,356 visitors per year. The numbers of tourists’ fluctuations were caused by internal and external factors as well, such as terrorist attack occurred in September 2001 in World Trade Center. At the same time, new competitors in South East Asia such as Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Philippines confronted Bali. Inauspiciously, global issues like terrorism as Indonesia is predominantly a Moslem country also...
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