Green Computing

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1. Introduction:
Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. It is "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. Green IT also strives to achieve economic viability and improved system performance and use, while abiding by our social and ethical responsibilities. Thus, green IT includes the dimensions of environmental sustainability, the economics of energy efficiency, and the total cost of ownership, which includes the cost of disposal and recycling is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently." To comprehensively and effectively address the environmental impacts of computing/IT, we must adopt a holistic approach and make the entire IT lifecycle greener by addressing environmental sustainability along the following four complementary paths: •Green use -- reducing the energy consumption of computers and other information systems as well as using them in an environmentally sound manner •Green disposal -- refurbishing and reusing old computers and properly recycling unwanted computers and other electronic equipment •Green design -- designing energy-efficient and environmentally sound components, computers, servers, cooling equipment, and data centres •Green manufacturing -- manufacturing electronic components, computers, and other associated subsystems with minimal impact on the environment These four paths span a number of focus areas and activities, including: •design for environmental sustainability

energy-efficient computing
power management
data centre design, layout, and location
server virtualization
responsible disposal and recycling
regulatory compliance
green metrics, assessment tools, and methodology
environment-related risk mitigation
use of renewable energy sources and
eco-labelling of IT products
Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computing initiative must be systemic in nature, and address increasingly sophisticated problems. Elements of such a solution may comprise items such as end user satisfaction, management restructuring, regulatory compliance, disposal of electronic waste, telecommuting, virtualization of server resources, energy use, thin client solutions, and return on investment (ROI). The imperative for companies to take control of their power consumption, for technology and more generally, therefore remains acute. One of the most effective power management tools available in 2009 may still be simple, plain, common sense. 2. Origins of Green Computing

In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star, a voluntary labelling program which is designed to promote and recognize energy-efficiency in monitors, climate control equipment, and other technologies. This resulted in the widespread adoption of sleep mode among consumer electronics. The term "green computing" was probably coined shortly after the Energy Star program began; there are several USENET posts dating back to 1992 which use the term in this manner. Concurrently, the Swedish organization TCO Development launched the TCO Certification program to promote low magnetic and electrical emissions from CRT-based computer displays; this program was later expanded to include criteria on energy consumption, ergonomics, and the use of hazardous materials in construction

3. The Impact of Green computing
Today’s PCs are far more powerful than the earliest room-filling computers. They also use less electricity. Arguably the first general-purpose computer, ENIAC drew roughly 150,000 watts of electricity. By comparison, today’s PCs consume about 110 watts. That seems small. But there was only one ENIAC — and there are 850 million PCs in...
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