Greek Philosophy

Topics: Philosophy, Socrates, Plato Pages: 5 (722 words) Published: October 1, 2014
GREEK PHILOSOPHY

What Is Philosophy?

Philosophy: The studies of Greco-Roman thinkers on activities and inquiries. It is also the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct. Philosophy focuses on three main types:

Stoicism
Skepticism
Epicurean
Philosophy consists of these philosophical areas:
Metaphysics
Materialism
Idealism
Epistemology
Empiricism
Rationalism
Ethics
Hedonism
Cynicism

Three Main Types

Stoicism

Refers to the knowledge of Aristotle
"Mind is a blank state, impressions are made by the 5 senses." Stoics deny the metaphysical points of view.
Real objects produce intense feelings.
The body and soul are pairs that act and react to each other.

Skepticism

Examines as to what someone should believe- derived from Plato's schooling Objections on skepticism:
Its commitment to knowledgeable limitation is nonexistent.
If knowledge is limited and judgment is not expressed, life is presumed unlivable.

Epicurean

Formulated by Epicurus who believed philosophy was studied to make the soul happy. Happiness created with less wanting of materialistic things and more peace.

Philosophical Areas

Metaphysics

Branch of philosophy accountable for the study of existence. Answers "what is?"
The foundation of philosophy
Without metaphysics, we would not be able to comprehend the world or act accordingly to it.

Materialism

Refers to the simple focus of the material world.
"Everything in the universe is matter and matters."
The philosophy is held by those who believed that material items are accountable for existence.

Idealism

Stresses the central ideal and spiritual interpretations of experiences. They believe world exists as a spirit
Two forms:
Metaphysical idealism
Epistemological idealism

Epistemology

The investigation of grounds and nature of knowledge of the world. Focuses on the knowledge of differences between truths and falsehood. Fundamental aspect to how we think.

Empiricism

Theory of experience as primary source to our knowledge of the world. Learning through perception.
Classical empiricism
Rejection of innate, in-born knowledge and concepts
Radical empiricism
Explains that all our knowledge is derived from our senses.
Moderate empiricism
Describes the exceptions to general empiristic rules.

Rationalism

Philosophical movement that introduced mathematical methods to philosophy. Can be understood through mathematical and logical principles, not sensory experiences.

Ethics

Branch of philosophy dealing with what is the proper action for humans. Answers "What do I do?"
Requirement for human life, decides course of action.

Hedonism

Doctrine that states that all pleasure is naturally acceptable- good for the soul. Nothing but pleasure is good.

Cynicism

Described as a way of life, which consists of asceticism, anti-conformism, and anti-conventionalism. Basis of cynicism is the virtue of well being and a happy life.

Philosophers

Socrates

Possibly the wisest sage of all time
Contributions to philosophy:
Pithy sayings
Socratic method of discussion
"Socratic" irony
Socratic method- saying he knows nothing and that unexamined life is not worth living Participated in the military during the Peloponnesian War.
Committed suicide by ingesting poison hemlock.

Plato

Fun fact: Plato is not his original name- it's Aristocles, but was later changed to Plato by his teachers

Considered the most important philosopher to have ever lived- father of Idealism. Thought the human soul contained reason, spirit, and appetite. Student and follower of Socrates.
Impacted math, science, morals, and political theories with his Legacy of the Academy schooling.

Aristotle

Student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great.
Wrote on logic, nature, psychology, ethics, politics, and art. Developed deductive reasoning.
Basis: Aristotle's syllogism
Church used Aristotle to explain...
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