Graphization, Standardization, Modernization

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Language Graphization

Graphization refers to development, selection and modification of scripts and orthographic conventions for a language. In other words, graphitization deals with changing the written form. it includes the writing system, letters, numbers, and so forth. Linguist Charles A. Ferguson made two key observations about the results of adopting a writing system. First, the use of writing adds another variety of the language to the community’s repertory. Although written language is often viewed as secondary to spoken language, the vocabulary, grammatical structures and phonological structures of a language often adopt characteristics in the written form that are distinct from the spoken variety. Second, the use of writing often leads to a folk belief that the written language is the ‘real’ language, and speech is a corruption of it.

Written language is viewed as more conservative, while the spoken variety is more susceptible to language change. However, this view ignores the possibility that isolated relic areas of the language may be less innovative than the written form or the written language may have been based on a divergent variety of the spoken language. In establishing a writing system for a language, corpus planners have the option of using an existing system or inventing a new one. The example of this graphization is for example the old Indonesian writing system transforms into the new Indonesian writing system as follow:

Kamoe(Kamu
Doeloe(Dulu
Atjeh(Aceh
Peroet(Perut
Mendjadi(Menjadi

Language Standardization

The definition of language standardization according to Kamwangamalu (2001:194) based on Crystal (1985), is stated as “standardization is a natural development of a standard language in a speech community or an attempt by a community to impose one dialect as standard.” He explains the activity of standardization as a direct and deliberate intervention by society to create a standard language in a situation where non standard varieties are used, by referring Hudson (1980). Similarly, Ekkehard Wolff (2000:332) said language standardization is a means in ‘language development,’ selection and promotion of variants with a language.

It usually involves development of language related activities like grammars, spelling books and dictionaries, and literature. It is also changing some spoken form of a particular language to be written down in an official manner with the intention of making this particular variety the preferred variety. When one deals with language standardization, it targeted to turning linguistic varieties into standard languages into two senses. First, in a sense of approved and accepted norm above all vernacular, colloquial and dialectal varieties for general and normative usage in certain domains such as literature, science, education, the media, the churches, public sectors, and so on. In the second sense, it is a regular and codified normative system of reference supported by a standard orthography, standard reference grammars and standard dictionaries.

There are four process of language standardization. They are selection, codification, elaboration, and acceptance.

1. Selection
At this stage, the main stage is dialectical choice. The criteria of selection can be one of such factors as: historical, resolution of some bodies of experts, by legislation, demographics and others.

2. Codification
After the selection of a dialect, what follows is the codification. Codification is the rule. It includes the grammar, sounds, and so on. The result of codification will be grammar books, synonym and antonym dictionaries, dictionaries, guidance of making types of letters and so forth.

3. Elaboration
This is the stage at which the selected dialect and the codified norm are used at different domains like education, media, literature, and other domain. The main purpose of this elaboration is to socialize the...
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