Grand Case Study on Breast Cancer

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INTRODUCTION
Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that begins in the tissues of the breast. Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells grow in an uncontrolled way. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, but it can also appear in men. In the U.S., it affects one in eight women. Breast Cancer is the leading cause of death in the women between ages 35 and 54. It is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women between ages 15 and 54. Breast cancer in men is rare. The etiology of breast cancer has not been definitely established. A virus has been suggested as a cause. Currently, it does not seem that a virus is transmitted from person to person causes breast cancer, or a virus can explain the epidemiologic features of disease. Risk Factors associated with increased risk of Breast Cancer includes race, age, previous medical history, family history, menstrual history (Early menarche (under age 12) and Late menopausal (after age 50)), and late first pregnancy. Be alert for assessment and findings indicating breast cancer, even though detection may be difficult. Initially breast cancer typically appears as a single mass, more often in a breast’s upper outer quadrant. The mass is usually painless, nontender, hard, irregular in shape, and nonmobile. Nursing role is to encourage all women to perform BSE. The symptoms of breast cancer includes a lump or a thickening in the breast or in the armpit, a change of size or shape of the mature breast, nipple fluid (not milk) leaking, a change of size or shape of the nipple, a change of color or texture of the nipple or the areola, or of the skin of the breast itself (dimples, puckers, rash). There are various histopathology types of breast cancer exist, with various prognoses. This includes infiltrating duct carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, musicnous or colloid, carcinoma, paget’s disease, and inflammatory breast cancer. Infiltrating duct carcinoma, Found in 70 percent of breast cancers. Frequently metastasizes to axillary lymph nodes and has the worst prognosis. Medullary carcinoma, frequently reaches large size However, prognosis is better than for many types of breast cancer. Tabular carcinoma frequently occurs with other types of breast cancer. Moderate prognosis. Musicnous or colloid, carcinoma. Frequently occurs with other types of breast cancer. Slow-growing, when a breast cancer is predominantly mucinous prognosis is good. Carcinoma, Often an in situ lesion or may be invasive. May be multicentric or involve the opposite breast. Paget’s disease, Special classification characterized by it relatively long history of crusting, scaling skin changes in the nipple, with burning, itching, or bleeding in additions. Inflammatory breast cancer, Characterized by skin redness and induration. Frequently associated with palpable axillary and supraclavicular nodes and distant metastases. Breast cancer treatment focuses on local regional control as well as systemic treatment. Local and regional treatment involves the breast, chest wall, and draining lymph node areas. Systemic treatment considers possible or definite distant metastasis. Subclinical metastasis may be present at the time of the initial local therapy. Systemic breast cancer can be a slow-developing, chronic disease. For this reason, ten-year survival rates are used to assess the effectiveness of treatment. Treatment recommendation for breast cancer vary, People disagree over which treatments are most helpful. For many years the standard Halsted radical mastectomy was the only accepted treatment for breast cancer. Now less radical surgical procedures may be used for local control. Modified radical mastectomy is most often performed. Radiotherapy is growing in popularity as the initial therapy for local control. Hormonal manipulation is used with increasing success for systemic therapy in suitable individuals based on a study of their estrogen treatment. Chemotherapy with cytotoxic medication is...
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