Grammar Translation Approach and Direct Approach - Research from Other Paper

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An extension of the approach used to teach classical Ls to the teaching of modern L Grammar translation approach
*Characteristics
* Instruction is given in the native L of the students.
* There is little use of the target L for communication.
* Focus is on grammatical parsing; the form and inflection of words. * There is early reading of difficult texts.
* A typical exercise is to translate sentences from the target L into the mother tongue ,VS * The result of this approach is usually an inability on the part of the student to use the L for communication * The teacher does not have to be able to speak the target L

[celce-murcia, Marianne ,
Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language 6page,
Heinle, Cengage Learning]

The accuracy of the sentences mainly depends on the leaner’s mastery of grammar With this model, language structures are presented by the teacher, then practiced in the form of spoken or written exercises, and then used by learners in less controlled speaking or writing activities. GTA helps improve student’s mastery of grammar, but students cannot use these rules flexibly and appropriately in communication. That is to say, the traditional GTM has its disadvantages which prevent the students from developing their communicative competence

*Weakness
1) Teacher-centered. As a result, classroom time is mainly spent on the teachers’ elaborate explanation of English grammar rules, while all the students are either listening or taking notes.- Little attention to communicative competence students accept the English knowledge passively.- Little use of the language typical exercise is to translate sentences from L2 into L1 or vice versa; lack of communicative opportunities| 2) Memorization and rote learning are the basic learning techniques, which cannot help to arouse students’ interest, build their self-confidence or improve their communicative strategies in English learning and even makes them fear...
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