Grammar the Present Perfect Tense

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Grammar
The Present Perfect Tense
Form:
Affirmative:
I/ You/ We/ They _____ have lived in Alexandria. He/ She/ It _______ has lived in Alexandria.

Negative:
I/ You/ We/ They _____ have not{haven't} lived… He/ She/ It __________ has not{hasn't} lived…..

Question:
Have I/ you/ we/ they lived ……..?
Has he/ she/ it lived ……..?

Usage:
Something happened in the past tense, but it has a relation to the present tense. In other words, it means something happened in the past and still continues till now.

Indicators:
Since/ for/ just/ yet/ ever/ never/ lately/ recently/ so far.

Examples:
@ He has learned English since 2000.
@ He has learned English for 6 years.
@ He has just left the house.
@ Ali has already done his homework.
@ I haven't done my homework yet.
@ Have you done your homework yet?
@ Have you ever seen this strange animal?
@ I have never seen this strange animal.
@ This is the most beautiful picture I have ever seen. @ Has he visited Paris recently?
@ He hasn't visited London lately.

Note the difference:
$ I have lived in Alex for six years.
$ I lived in Alex for six years.
Answer: …………………………………………………………………... $ Naguib Mahfouz has written many novels.
$ Shakespeare wrote many plays.
Answer:
………………………………………………………………….. $ They have been to Luxor.
$ They have gone to Luxor.
Answer:
…………………………………………………………………... Note these sentences:
# He began to learn English seven years ago. {use: for} He has learnt English for seven years.
# I last played football when I was on holiday. {use: since} I haven't played football since I was on holiday. # We haven't eaten in this restaurant for a long time. {since} It's a long time since we ate in this restaurant. # He told me the news a moment ago. {use: just} He has just told me the news.

Exercises On Grammar
Choose the right word in brackets:
1- I have been learning English since I …… five.
{have been/ was/ had been/ am}
2- You won't find him in his office. He ………recently. {had left/ will leave/ has left/ is leaving}
3- He …….his old car yet.
{hasn't sold/ doesn't sell/ didn't sell/ hadn't sold} 4- ………your room yet?
{Did you paint/ Had you painted/ Have you painted/ Do you paint} 5- We……..friend since we were children.
{had been/ will be/ have been/ are}
6- It's week since I …….him.
{saw/ had seen/ was seeing/ see}
7-How many times………him since you returned from abroad. {did you visit/ have you visited/ had you visited/ do you visit} 7- We……….everything you asked. What should we do now? {do/are doing/ will do/ have done}

8- It is the most expensive painting he ………
{has ever bought/ had ever bought/ ever buys/ bought} 9- He hasn't sent me letters since he…….abroad.
{travels/ traveled/ will travel/ had traveled}
10- He worked hard at school last term but he ……..hard this term. {hasn't worked/ doesn't work/ didn't work/ hadn't work} 11- I haven't found my lost bag…….
{yet/ already/ ago/ ever}
12- He has………finished his work.
{still/ yet/ already/ until}
13- We haven't read a magazine ……. A month.
{since/ for/ago/ during}
14- They have been working here ……. Three years.
{when/ in/ since/ for}
15- I have been playing tennis ……….I was 11.
{since/ for/ while/ when}
16- We haven't visited him ……..August.
{for/ when/ since/ still}
17- They have waited for you ………two hours....
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