Grammar: Noun and Indirect Speech

Topics: Noun, Lexical category, Superlative Pages: 34 (7541 words) Published: March 12, 2013
The simile is a figure of speech that describes something by comparing or establishing its similarity to something else, using ‘like’ or ‘as’. This device makes the description more emphatic. Similes are written in the following forms:

1. [subject] [verb] AS [adjective] AS...[noun]
The athlete was AS nimble AS a cat.
1. [subject] [verb] LIKE...[noun]
 This food tastes LIKE garbage.
He drives LIKE a maniac.
Here are some common examples of similes, with their meanings: cool as a cucumber.                     Cool-headed gentle as a lamb.                          Gentle, non-reactive blind as a bat.                              Completely blind dead as a doornail.                      Dead beyond a doubt strong as an ox.                           Very strong wise as an owl.                            Very wise drink like a fish.                            To drink a lot eat like a bird.                              To eat very little eat like a horse.                            To eat a lot smoke like a chimney.                  To smoke a lot. work like a dog.                            To work very hard. sleep like a log.                             To sleep soundly.

A metaphor is a figure of speech that uses an image, a story or a tangible example to express a quality or qualities possessed by a person or thing, or to represent a less tangible thing; e.g. Her face shone like the sun. With this broad definition, the metaphor subsumes within itself a number of other figures of speech: metonymy, synecdoche, synonym, catachresis, parable, etc. All conform to the basic framework of a figure of speech that achieves its objective by comparison, association or representation. Let us analyze a metaphorical statement:

The school was a prison for him.
What does this mean? It obviously does mean that the school was literally a prison, for that is ludicrous. It is immediately comprehensible, however, that the school shares certain characteristics with prisons. It is probable that the person referred to as ‘him’ feels locked up in school, as prisoners do in prison. The meanings of metaphors, while sometimes simple, are best understood in context. Here are some famous metaphors. See if you can figure out their meanings. All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances. William Shakespeare

Art washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life.
Pablo Picasso
All our words are but crumbs that fall down from the feast of the mind. Khalil Gibran
Let us be grateful to people who make us happy, they are the charming gardeners who make our souls blossom. Marcel Proust

Personification Examples
Personification can be described as a figure of speech in which an inanimate object is personified, by attributing human traits and qualities to it. In other words, whenever emotions, desires, sensations, physical gestures and speech are stated in context of non-living things, personification is said to have taken place. Through the technique, we describe lifeless things as human. The concept of personification is commonly used in poetry, where things are often described as having feelings. It is also widely used in fiction and children’s literature, though fiction is not likely to stay focused on the personified object for long.  

Personification is believed to be one of the most potent tools of literature. The technique makes it possible to describe something, which may be inexplicable otherwise. As such, the effectiveness of personification has been long recognized. It makes it easier to imagine a particular thing or object by creating its picture in the mind. It enables the reader to relate to the subject and imagine how a lifeless thing would have behaved, had it been human and able to emote. However, using the right description at the right time is the key to...
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