Semester 1 Session 2012/2013
Associate Professor Doctor Abdul Halim Ibrahim
Ways Of Building Vocabulary
Name: Tan Seng Cheng
Matric Number: D20121058134
Vocabulary is the knowledge of words and morphemes. There are two kinds of words, form class words and structure class words. Form class words are words that independently have meaning even if it stands alone or have lexical meaning. For example, words like cat, dog and house. This class can be further subdivided into four groups namely nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Structure class words are words that provide essential information about form class words. These words are lack lexical meaning as their main function is in the grammatical operations they perform. This class can be further subdivided into 8 classes namely determiners, auxiliaries, qualifiers, prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, relatives and interrogatives. Table 1 below shows the subclasses of each class.
Form Classes(Content Words)| Structure Classes( Function Words)| NounsVerbsAdjectiveAdverb| DeterminersAuxiliariesQualifiersPrepositionsConjunctionsPronounsRelativeInterrogatives|
The noun is traditionally described as “the name of a person, thing, or place”. However, even in nouns there are several subclasses, namely proper nouns, count nouns and uncountable nouns, collective nouns, concrete nouns and abstract nouns.
1. Common nouns, just like the name says are general nouns. For example, * cat
2. Proper nouns are the names of specific items, persons and places. They’re first letters are capitalized in writing to differentiate them from the more common nouns.
Common nouns| Proper nouns|
car| Proton Saga|
monument| Statue of Liberty|
author| David Eddings|
As one can see from the table above, proper nouns are used to refer to the name of specific things.
However, even common nouns can be subdivided into two groups, count nouns and uncountable nouns.
3. Count nouns are nouns that are preceded by determiners (a structure word that precedes and modifies a noun). They occur with many types of determiners and can be distinguished by number. For example,
A flower| Many flowers|
A car| Many cars|
A pencil| Many pencils|
A pen| Many pens|
A computer| Many computers|
4. Uncountable nouns are nouns that as the name says, cannot be counted. These nouns are preceded by determiners. However, unlike count nouns these nouns only occur in the singular and only determiners that do not distinguish the noun by number can be used. For example, water, some water or sunshine, some sunshine.
5. Collectable nouns are nouns that refer to a group of things or people such as family, department, and party.
6. Concrete nouns are items or physical objects that can be touched and seen such as mouse, sink and table.
7. Abstract nouns are nouns that refer to things that cannot be touched. They refer to things like feelings and ideas such as love, hate, courage and bravery.
Types of nouns| Definition| Example|
Common nouns| General nouns of an item, place or person.| Cat, house, boy| Proper nouns| Nouns of a specific item, place or person.| Tanjung Malim, Rick Riordan, Christmas| Count nouns| Nouns that are countable or able to be distinguished by number.| Flowers, bags, cars| Uncountable nouns| Nouns that cannot be counted and is indistinguishable by number.| Sunshine, water, electricity| Collective nouns| Nouns referring to a group of items or people.| Department, police, party.| Concrete nouns| Nouns referring to a physical object. ( things that can be touched physically)| Table, chair, computer.| Abstract nouns| Nouns referring to non-physical objects such as feelings and ideas.| Love, hate, envy.| Pronouns
Pronouns are a class of words that are used to make...