Grammar

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  • Topic: Past tense, Grammatical tenses, Perfect aspect
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REFERENCE AND PRACTICE FOR INTERMEDIATE STUDENTS OF ENGLISH

RAYMOND MURPHY
with Roann Altman
Consultant: William E. Rutherford

PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE. UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 lRP, United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia © Cambridge University Press 1989 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1989 Eleventh printing 1998 Printed in the United States of America Typeset in Times Roman Library of Congress Cataloging-j/1,-Publicatian Data Murphy, Raymond. Grammar in use. Contents: [1] Student's book - [2] Answer key. 1. English language - Textbooks for foreign speakers. 2. English language - Grammar - 19503. English language - United States. I Altman, Roann. II. Title. PE1128.M775 1989 428.2'4 88-29951

ISBN 0-521-34843-9 Student's Book: paperback ISBN 0~521-35701-2 Answer Key: paperback Illustrations by Daisy de Puthod Book design by Final Draft, Inc.

CONTENTS
Introduction Tenses Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit IX

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Unit 18 Unit 19 Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit

20 21 22 23 24

Present continuous (I am doing) 2 Simple present (I do) 4 Present continuous (I am doing) or simple present (I do)? 6 Present tenses (I am doing / 1 do) with a future meaning 8 10 Going to (I am going to do) Will (1) 12 Will (2) 14 Will or going to? 16 When and If sentences (When 1 do ... / If 1 do ... ) 18 Will be doing and will have done 20 Simple past (I did) 22 Past continuous (I was doing) 24 Present perfect (I have done) (1) 26 Present perfect (I have done) (2) 28 Present perfect (I have done) (3) 30 32 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) or present perfect simple (I have done)? 34 Present perfect (I have done / 1 have been doing) with how long, for, since 36 Present perfect with how long; simple past with when; Since and for 38 40 Present perfect (I have done) or simple past (I did)? Past perfect (I had done) 42 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) 44 46 Have and have got Used to (I used to do) 48

Modal verbs Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit 25 26 27 28 29 30
Can, could, and be able to 50 Could (do) and could have (done) 52 Must (have) and can't (have) 54 May (have) and might (have) 56 May and might (future) 58 Can, could, may, and would: requests, permissions, offers, and invitations 60 Have to and must 62 Should 64 Subjunctive (I suggest you do) 66

Unit 31 Unit 32 Unit 33

v

Contents
Conditionals Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Passive Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit 40 41 42 43 44 Passive (1) (be done / have been done) 80 Passive (2) (present and past tenses) 82 Passive (3) 84 It is said that ... / He is said to ... , etc., and supposed to Have something done 88

34 35 36 37 38 39

If sentences (presentlfuture) 68 If and wish sentences (present) 70 If and wish sentences (past) 72 Would 74 In case 76

Unless, as long as, and provided/providing (that)

78

86

Reported speech Unit 45 Unit 46 Questions Unit 47 Unit 48 Unit 49 Unit 50 Questions (1) 94 Questions (2) (Do you know where ... ? / He asked me where ... ) Auxiliary verbs in short answers / short questions, etc.: So / Neither am I, etc. 98 Tag questions (are you? doesn't he?, etc.) 100 Reported speech (1) Reported speech (2)

90 92

96

-ing and the infinitive Unit 51 Unit 52 Unit 53 Unit 54 Unit 55 Unit 56 Unit 57 Unit 58 Unit 59 Unit 60 Unit 61 Unit 62 Unit 63 Unit 64 Articles Unit 65 Unit 66 Uncountable nouns (gold, music, advice, etc.) Countable nouns...
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