A Research Paper Presented to
the Faculty of the Department of Languages
College of Arts and Sciences
San Beda College
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for ENG02
Bachelor of Science Major in Accountancy
Rodolfo S. dela Cruz III
March 16, 2011
Graft and corruption is one of the most common obstacles to economic development. There are various forms of graft & corruption which includes bribery, kickbacks, embezzlement, vote buying, cronyism, and nepotism. In Philippine Military, embezzlement or misappropriation of military funds is the most common form of corruption. High ranking officials of the military mismanaged the funds for their own advantage, resulting in the irregularities in the procurement of supplies which are intended to modernize their institution. The researcher conducted a survey in a questionnaire form to his colleagues in Section I-FAC in order to come up with the accurate perception of the youth on the issue of graft & corruption in the military. The survey results reveal that youth nowadays are attentive and very much worried about their future.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
"Public office is a Public Trust. Public officers and employees must at all times be, accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty and efficiency, act with patriotism and justice and lead modest lives" (Section 1, Article XI). This is the usual logo when we enter into any government establishment. The Philippine government is directed to maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption (Section 27, Article II). The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the State and defend the Constitution (Section 4-5(1), Article XVI).
Among the challenges to national development in the Philippines are graft and corruption, which are clear in many various forms including bribery, kickbacks, embezzlement, vote buying, cronyism, and nepotism. Additionally, corruption facilitates criminal enterprises such as black marketing and illegal gambling syndicates, both also prevalent. Corruption has both political and socio-cultural roots: the political system and its institutions allow graft and corruption to flourish, but it is people, not institutions, who are robbing government funds (Elliot, 2008).
In the late 1980’s, the Philippines entered the Guinness Book of World Records for allegedly the biggest corruption of all time, referring to the period of the dictatorship of the former President, Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos was ousted from his twenty-year presidency by a bloodless people’s power revolution in February 1986. To describe the corruption of his regime, “kleptocracy” and “plunder” became part of the Filipino’s political vocabulary and discourse - “Government by thievery” (Moratalla).
Corruption has always been a part of the Philippines’ military, according to numerous studies and expert assessments. It has been cited as a main factor in military adventurism. In July 2003, when hundreds of soldiers mutinied to demand reforms, they accused their superiors of mismanaging the military retirement fund, causing irregularities in the procurement of supplies, misusing the money that was supposed to modernize the armed forces and selling guns and ammunition to enemies of the state (Conde, 2005). The mutineers accused the government and their superiors of graft and corruption. While the political class rejected the methodology of the mutineers, many showed sympathy for the issues raised by them (Meinardus, 2005).
Graft and corruption in the military once more hit the headlines after Major General Carlos F. Garcia was accused of accumulating unexplained wealth during his three...