Carbon chains: Straight chains and branched chains, Numbering of chains and branches.
Carbon Rings: Cyclic Molecules, Aromatic Compounds
Types of Organic reactions:
What is organic chemistry? Carbon compounds.
Methane CH4 Hexane C6 H14
Ethane C2H 6 Heptane C7 H16
Propane C3H 8 Octane C8 H18
Butane C4H10 Nonane C9H20
Pentane C 5 H12 Decane C1 0 H22
Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
Cycloalkanes: Alkenes: Alkynes:
General formula: Cn H2n General formula: Cn H2n General formula:Cn H2n -2
Haloalkanes: Alekanes: Alcohols:
Alkylhalides CnH2n+n “OH” group
F (Fluoro), Cl (Chloro), Br (Bromo), I (Iodo)
“Anes” - No double bonds.
“Enes”-At least One double bond.
“Ynes”- At least one triple bond.
“OH”- name ends in “ol”
“ABC rule”- Try to make the chains in Alphabetical order
“Cyclo”- If the chain is connected together it the name must start with Cyclo (If enclosed)
Chain must start where there is most activity
Di, Tri, Tetra – For listing elements when appearing more than once on a chain
Methyl- Single side chain off the main chain
Name side chains by using “yl”- Methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc..
PRIORITY RULES- are a set of rules that allow us to rank certain chemical features of a molecule on a scale of importance. Typically, molecules/groups containing oxygen have a higher priority.
Isopropyl- a side chain off of the main chain that has a duel end -<
Doesn’t react like an unsaturated molecule.
Addition Vs Substitution:
Substitution reactions occur when molecules contain saturated chains (No double or triple bonds) or bear an aromatic ring. (usually with UV light/Heat)
Free radicals: an atom or molecule with an unpaired electron.
Aromatics: substitution no the aromatic ring requires harsh conditions and usually a catalyst.
Visible product (soot, yellow flame, smoke, residue) for incomplete reactions. CH + O2 >>Incomplete>> CO + CO2 + H2O
Conditions for a complete combustion would be that they need to produce CO2 and H2O after they finish combusting ( Also produce Blue flame)
CHOH + ( excess) O2 >>Complete>> CO2 + H2O
Important to state whether it was Addition or substitution
Ex. Halogenation by addition
Hydrohalogenation: Addition of HBr, HCl, etc..
Halogenation- Addition of Cl2, Br2, F2, Etc..
Hydration: Add H2O
Dehydration- Remove H2O
Oxidation – Add OH with a catalyst CrO3, HcrO4, NaCr2 O7, K2 Cr2 O7 , O3 , KmnO4.
Molecules containing at least one hydroxyl group (OH ).
The OH is always given the lowest number possible and must be included in the bigger chain.
Synthesis of Ethers:
Ethers general formula: R-O-R
The largest carbon chain is considered the parent chain; the shorter chain is given the suffix “oxy” to indicate the presence of oxygen.
Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
In these reactions, we 'Add' new atoms to the double bonds/triple bonds until the carbon has 4 bonds.
Hydration Reaction example:
*Heating an alcohol can reverse the hydration reaction= dehydration reaction.
Water is very stable so we need to encourage it to break apart and add to the double bond; and acid catalyst is added.
The OH group is easily converted into other functional groups (Ketones, aldehydes, ethers....)
In addition reactions involving unsymmetrical...