Grade 12 Chemistry Exam Prep

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Organic Chemistry

Basic Ideas:
Carbon chains: Straight chains and branched chains, Numbering of chains and branches.

Carbon Rings: Cyclic Molecules, Aromatic Compounds

Types of Organic reactions:
Combustion
Addition
Substitution
Condensation
Oxidation

What is organic chemistry? Carbon compounds.

Methane CH4 Hexane C6 H14
Ethane C2H 6 Heptane C7 H16
Propane C3H 8 Octane C8 H18
Butane C4H10 Nonane C9H20
Pentane C 5 H12 Decane C1 0 H22

Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons

Rules:

Cycloalkanes: Alkenes: Alkynes:
General formula: Cn H2n General formula: Cn H2n General formula:Cn H2n -2

Haloalkanes: Alekanes: Alcohols:
Alkylhalides CnH2n+n “OH” group

F (Fluoro), Cl (Chloro), Br (Bromo), I (Iodo)

Other rules:

“Anes” - No double bonds.

“Enes”-At least One double bond.

“Ynes”- At least one triple bond.

“OH”- name ends in “ol”

“ABC rule”- Try to make the chains in Alphabetical order

“Cyclo”- If the chain is connected together it the name must start with Cyclo (If enclosed)

Chain must start where there is most activity

Di, Tri, Tetra – For listing elements when appearing more than once on a chain

Methyl- Single side chain off the main chain

Name side chains by using “yl”- Methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc..

PRIORITY RULES- are a set of rules that allow us to rank certain chemical features of a molecule on a scale of importance. Typically, molecules/groups containing oxygen have a higher priority.

Cyclo groups-

Triangle: Cyclopropane

Square: Cyclobutane

Pentagon: Cyclopentane

Hexagon: Cyclohexane

ISO
Isopropyl- a side chain off of the main chain that has a duel end -<

Isobutyl- \/<

Isopentyl- -/\<

Aromatic Hydrocarbons:
Doesn’t react like an unsaturated molecule.

Ortho-

Meta-

Para-

Toluene-

Phenol-

Addition Vs Substitution:
Substitution reactions occur when molecules contain saturated chains (No double or triple bonds) or bear an aromatic ring. (usually with UV light/Heat)

Free radicals: an atom or molecule with an unpaired electron.

Aromatics: substitution no the aromatic ring requires harsh conditions and usually a catalyst.

Combustion reactions:
Visible product (soot, yellow flame, smoke, residue) for incomplete reactions. CH + O2 >>Incomplete>> CO + CO2 + H2O

Conditions for a complete combustion would be that they need to produce CO2 and H2O after they finish combusting ( Also produce Blue flame)

CHOH + ( excess) O2 >>Complete>> CO2 + H2O

Reactions:
Important to state whether it was Addition or substitution
Ex. Halogenation by addition

Hydrohalogenation: Addition of HBr, HCl, etc..

Halogenation- Addition of Cl2, Br2, F2, Etc..

Hydration: Add H2O

Dehydration- Remove H2O

Combustion reactions

Oxidation – Add OH with a catalyst CrO3, HcrO4, NaCr2 O7, K2 Cr2 O7 , O3 , KmnO4.

Alcohol Nomenclature:
Molecules containing at least one hydroxyl group (OH ).
The OH is always given the lowest number possible and must be included in the bigger chain.

Ex.

Primary:

Secondary:

Tertiary:

Synthesis of Ethers:
Ethers general formula: R-O-R

The largest carbon chain is considered the parent chain; the shorter chain is given the suffix “oxy” to indicate the presence of oxygen.

Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
Addition reactions:
In these reactions, we 'Add' new atoms to the double bonds/triple bonds until the carbon has 4 bonds.

Hydration Reaction example:

*Heating an alcohol can reverse the hydration reaction= dehydration reaction.

Water is very stable so we need to encourage it to break apart and add to the double bond; and acid catalyst is added.

The OH group is easily converted into other functional groups (Ketones, aldehydes, ethers....)

Hydrogenation example:

Hydrohalogenation example:

Halogenation example:

Markovnikov rule:
In addition reactions involving unsymmetrical...
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