Government 2302- Exam 1 Study Guide

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Chapter 12: Congress
1)What did the Credit Card Accountability and Responsibility Act of 2009 do and the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act do that impacts college students? 430 a)The CARD act of 2009, restricted credit card companies from raising interest rates on existing balances. It also prevented credit card companies from charging a fee for exceeding their borrowing limit unless these customers had explicitly requested this service. It also made it more difficult for credit card companies to target those under 21 years of age- since they now had to provide either proof of parental consent or proof of financial capability. i)The Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility act made loans available to more students by having the federal government loan directly to students. This change eliminated billions in subsidies paid to the banks that had offered student loans. It also blocked a proposed interest rate increase, keeping the rate at 3.4% 2)What is a constituency and what relationship are they supposed to have to their representatives? 437 a)The constituents of a district are the residents in an area for the elected official. 3)What is a bicameral legislature and what are the houses of Congress? 437 a)A legislative assembly is composed of two chambers/houses. 4)What are the formal qualifications for holding office in Congress? 437 a)House

i)Minimum age: 25 years old
ii)US Citizenship: at least 7 years as a US Citizen
iii)Length of term: 2 years
iv)Number representing each state: depends on population
v)Constituency: Local
b)Senate
i)Minimum age: 30 years old
ii)US Citizenship: at least 9 years as a US citizen
iii)Length of term: 6 years
iv)Number representing each state: 2 per state
v)Constituency: Local and National
5)According to Table 12.1, what are the differences between the House and the Senate? 437-8 a)The age requirements are different, as are the citizenship requirements. The term for the Senate is 6 years whereas the House is only 2 years, however with the House, you have representatives based on your states population, not a predetermined amount. 6)Why does the House tend to represent PACs and interest groups more than the Senate? 438 a)I believe that the House would have more interest involvement with the PAC (political action committees) then the Senate because they more focused on a local level of politics then the Senate. In addition, with elections being held every two years, they are more in tuned to the interests of businesses and local interest groups. 7)What is the difference between sociological and agency representation? 438 a)A sociological representation is when the candidate or incumbent has the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational background as their constituents. i)Agency representation is the concept that regardless of the elected officials personal background or preferences, they will always vote with their constituents even when that vote may be contrary to their own. Hire and fire our representatives when they don’t follow the needs/desires of the general public. 8)How many women were in the House in 1990 and how many in 2010? 439 a)1990- 29 women in the house

b)2010- 78 women in the house
9)What are the three main occupational backgrounds of members of Congress? 439 a)The legal profession (most dominant), public service and politics is second, with many members of congress coming from business and industry. 10)How many people does each US Representative represent? 440 a)As many as 660,000

11)Why are members of Congress often free to “represent” their own interests in the legislative process and on what issues are they most likely to do this? 442? a)When the constituents of their district do not have very strong views. 12)Why does the racial composition of Congress? 441

a)82% white, 9% black, 6% Hispanic, 2% Asian/Pacific, 0.2% Native American 13)How much of their time and their staff time is spent on...
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