Figure:1 Illustrating the Interdependency and Inter-relation.
The factors that have contributed to Google’s success are:
← Attraction selection attrition (A.S.A) – Organizational Level (OL) ← IQ and Big 5 traits in employees – Individual and Group Level ← Job Satisfaction – Individual Level (IL)
← Organic Structure – Organizational Level
← Leadership – Group Level (GL)
← Motivation for employees – Individual Level via Group and Organizational Level ← Reflexivity among team mates – Group Level
Attraction Selection Attrition (A.S.A):
The point to be noted in the following explanation is the inter-relationship between A.S.A and IQ & Big 5 traits in employees. Google while hiring its employees is very selective and attract candidates who have performed well academically and have good scores on SAT, GMAT or other competitive exams which proves*(Gottfredson L.S., (2003), quoted in Robbins S.P and Judge T.A 12 ed., p.44-45) that their IQ level is high. The reason Google considers it important is because it is proven that these tests test the intellectual abilities of a person. A few dimensions for intellectual ability have been identified, which include number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, memory*(M.D. Dunnette, (Chicago:Rand McNally, 1976, quoted in Robbins S.P and Judge T.A 12 ed., p.45) obviously not all dimensions are needed to be intelligent for example a software programmer should have the ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve it, hence, the dimension he needs to essentially possess to perform well in his field is inductive reasoning. Google hires people with diverse skills and qualities, so that they could use these diverse skills to their benefit, in this case innovation. Google being an innovative company prefers fresher from college with good educational background rather than experienced employee. It is said that intelligent people are better job performers*( W.M Coward and P.R. Sackett,(june 1990), quoted in Robbins S.P and Judge T.A 12 ed., p.45), more creative, are able to learn jobs more quickly, are more adaptable to changing circumstances and are better at inventing solutions that improve performance. Hence we can conclude that A.S.A*(Schneider B, quoted in BHM399, Organizational Behavior, p.112) is adapted by organization to achieve performance.
Interestingly while intelligence is a big help in performing a job well, it is not correlated with job satisfaction. Hence, it is important to match ability to job which is also know as ability-job fit and the effect of personality on performance or personality-performance. Performance is inter-related to job-satisfaction. Studies*(Ability-job fit, Person-job fit, Motivational theories) show that:
← Job-satisfaction, motivation and personality (includes ability of a individual) lead to better performance.
Personality: IQ and Big Five Model
As Google hires through A.S.A, Googlers have IQ and possess some or all the qualities of OCEAN*(Landrum G.N, (1993), quoted in Robbins S.P and Judge T.A 12 ed., p.109). The applicable theory for the personality traits/ personality is Big Five model (OCEAN & IQ). Personality of the employee is directly related to his/her performance. This can be explained by person- job fit theory*(Holland J.L, (1997), quoted in Robbins S.P and...