Albert Neisser was one of the first men who gave the proper microbial name “Neisseria gonorrhoeae” for the bacterium that’s causes gonorrhea; which grows and reproduces rapidly in moist such as warm areas of the body, Naisser concluded that the bacteria has a kidney shape that are found inside white cells, which are part of the body’s defense against infection, this bacteria are arranged in groups known as diplococci. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection from person to person that causes genital infections such as: infection of the urethra, cervix and pelvic organs in woman, and the urethra, epididymis and prostate in men. Gonorrhea can also lead to the infection of the throat, joint infection, conjunctiva, rectum and meningitis. Unfortunately people who are infected with this disease have an increased risk of getting easily infected by HIV infections. Gonorrhea is transmitted during sexual intercourse such as penetration of the vagina or by anal and oral sex. Male have a higher percentage of transmitting this disease than women. When a person is infected with gonorrhea they experience symptoms within
few days or a few weeks. In male the symptoms of gonorrhea are irritation in the penis, anal itching, a burning sensation when urinating and a yellow or clear discharge from the penis resulting of the urethral opening to be inflamed and the penis to be slightly swollen. If gonorrhea is no treated properly or on time the urethral symptoms may disappear, but epididymitis can be a more complicated leading to a severe inflammation of the scrotum (external pouch that contains the testes) and infertility. The initial symptoms in women result of a burning sensation when urinating, yellow or bloody discharge from the vagina, vomiting, fever and bleeding between menstrual periods. Women that are infected with gonorrhea develop PID (pelvic inflammatory disease). When this occur the infections moves from the cervix up into the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries and it causes a severe pain when intercourse occurs and it may produce fever and bleeding of the vagina. The PID can be so dangerous that can cause infertility or a risk of a pregnancy outside the womb. Unfortunately women who are pregnant and become infected with gonococcal infection of the cervix, at the time of delivery there is a big possibility that the baby can become infected too. As a result the baby’s eyes get infected with ophthalmia neonatorum (contracted while passing through the birth canal) which is the common cause of the childhood blindness. The baby’s throat and vulva can also become infected. In order to diagnose gonorrhea there are different techniques that can be done to be able to identify these infection. Gram stain is one of the most used techniques since its one of the most accurate test for men but not very accurate for women. This test is done by placing a smear of the discharge from the cervix or the penis on a slide and staining the smear with a special dye, the slide can be seen under a microscope for the appearance of bacteria. Since the gram stain is more accurate for men than women only one woman out of two with gonorrhea have a positive gram stain. They can easily been seen under a microscope with a thousand magnification, if the results are gram negative they will show up with a pink color. Another test to diagnose gonorrhea is the culture test which is done by placing an amount of discharge onto an agar plate and incubating for up to two or three days to permit the bacteria to grow and multiply. The sensitivity of the culture test depends on the location from which the sample is taken. Also one of the newest tests is called the nucleic acid hybridization test which looks for bacterial DNA and consists of swabs of the cervix or the vagina, urethral swabs from men and urine to see the bacteria. However this test is not one of the most accurate but the culture test is still one of the most precise tests today. The...
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