Golden Age of Islam

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In the 8th to 13th century while the Islamic heartlands, the Abbasid Empire was declining, the Islamic world went through a period of cultural advancement and expansion. This is considered the Golden Age of Islam because of its developments in architecture, literature, astronomy, philosophy, medicine, math and science. Not much stayed the same in the Islamic world, however it was evident that they had still remained a dominant religion and were ahead of the world in mathematics and science. The Muslims expanded their empire mostly through military conquest. In terms of change the biggest was the fall of the second caliphate of the Muslim empire. The Abbasid empires began to decline slowly between the 9th and 13th century. This was mostly because of revolts among peasants, increase in slavery, political decline, and economic strain within the empire. During this period the position of women had also worsened. Even women of higher class were now treated like second class citizens. In some cases women of lower classes were considered to have more rights because they were afforded the right to work (economic freedom) and to go out. Women of higher status did not have these rights and covered their bodies completely in order not to distract men. Although, this new “style” of dress eventually reached the lower class as well. The third caliph of this time Al Mahdi did little to improve the deteriorating empire. Instead he abandoned previous preserving ways and took to a life of luxury not only did the empire get into even more financial turmoil but he also neglected to choose a successor. However after his death Al Mahdi avoided a civil war. This was not the case for Harun al Rahid. The civil war caused by his death resulted in leaders of slave mercenaries being the real power behind the throne. The mercenaries were a primary source of violence. The Civil violence caused economic devastation and put a strain on much of the peasant class to pay taxes, which lead to the...
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