Gold Rush to Rail Road Invention
The gold rush began at the beginning of the 1848 and continued till 1853. According to the author Orsi of the book The Elusive Eden, the Gold was first discovered by James Marshall at Sutter’s mill. This discovery of gold news started spreading all around the California and around the world. By the end of the 1848 news had reached Hawaii, Mexico, the Pacific Northwest, the Pacific Coast of South America, China, the East Coast of the United States, and Europe. The gold rush attracted non-Californians to the California. During the first half of the gold rush, mining changed significantly. About 1,300 of Californios were successful participants during that time. For example the Coronel, Sepulveda, and Carrillo families in Los Angeles organized their own party. Coronel gathered forty-five ounces of gold in just one day, and an associate found a twelve-ounce nuggets. Another family gathered a towelful of nuggets in few hours, and then sold it to another who extracted fifty-two pounds of gold in a week. All owners of the party became rich. At the end of the mining season of 1848, successful Californios returned to their homes. While in the diggings, the party encountered Yankee opposition and open threats to all “foreigners.” When Coronel’s group retreated to more isolated regions, they were informed that the gold belongs to the Yankees, Californios made the wise decision of leaving mines by the 1849. Side by side when gold seekers were enjoying their richness, in 1850 the law got approved by the law makers, which charged twenty dollars per month tax on noncitizen miners states in the book The Elusive Eden. There was not a universal support towards the law, but revenue need for California convinced most of legislators to vote for it. It created a little threat for foreigners to come to the California due to the high tax amount to pay. This law mainly affected the Mexicans. The law was successful in one sense, it drove most Hispanics from the mines, rather than that it was a failure towards producing 2.4 million dollars in the revenue, states in the book The Elusive Eden. Nevertheless, the tax was too high which generated a bit of revenue in the state but did not accomplish fully until the later in the period. In the book The Elusive Eden, Orsi says that a month after the arrival of first Forty-Niners in to the California, a convention drafted a state constitution and applied for the admission to the Union. The attracted population due to the gold rush at California wanted to form a civil territorial government. To fulfill the agitation of people, the military governor Bennett Riley called the election of delegates in June of 1849 to create state constitution. The Constitutional Convention was not much of a success. The volatile issue of slavery created few problems during that era, even few delegates joined opposition to the institution. The book The Elusive Eden also informs that the most serious controversy at the convention was about the state boundaries. Some delegates suggested state bordered by the Rocky Mountains, some suggested for the Sierra, while some proposed several intermediate lines. No doubts that the Constitution of 1849 had some good effects like, it banned dueling in some extend and created the mandatory public school system, the university and secured the federal land-grant aid for the educational purposes. But it also raised an issue regarding burdens on real property, which was the effect of the protested revenue policy by the underrepresented southern Californians. After Californians approved the constitution in November of 1849, they applied for petition of statehood. According to the author Orsi Congress firstly did not approve the California’s petition. Even the partisan controversy, efforts to preserve a balance of power in Congress, and slavery issues delayed action on California’s petition. But finally after a long wait, a proposal supported by leading Whigs and...
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