Gold rush, History of Australia during the 19th century.

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In 2001, Australian celebrate the 150th anniversary of the official discovery of gold near bathrust in New south Wales. On 12 February 1851 , Edward Hargrave's found five grains of gold in mud washed from Lewis ponds Creek. Gold was such a valuable and desired material that for a while, the whole country was caught up in 'gold' fever'. Men left their jobs, homes and families to rush to the goldfields in New South Wales and Victoria. The fever spread to Queensland, and then finally to all the colonies of Australia. Within 10 years, the population had more than doubled, as eager gold diggers from Europe, America and Asia sailed to Australia in the hope of making their fortune. Australia was never the same again. New towns and cities grew quickly with the increase in population. More farming land was taken up to feed the diggers and their families. New industries developed to provide them with building materials, furniture, clothes and food, and equipment for the mines. But gold did not bring prosperity for all. As settlement spread, more and more aboriginal people were forced off their traditional lands. Growing up on the goldfields is one in a series of six the excitement of its official discovery in 1851, to the large scale mines of today. Each book looks at how the discovery of those tiny grains of gold changed Australia forever.

The effects were dramatic. Australians became gold crazy for a time. Men abandoned their jobs rushed off to make their fortune on the gold fields. In Melbourne, the whole police force deserted. Shops closed because there were no customers and no shop attendants to sell them anything. Some Melbourne suburbs were left without even one healthy male they had all gone off to the diggings. Ships in the harbor lay empty as the crews deserted, buildings stopped, sporting events were cancelled and schools closed down as the teachers rushed away. Victorian was the colony where it was all happening in the 1850s 90 percents of all Australian's gold was mined in Victoria. When the news reached London, Australia changed from being a place where no one wanted to go to a place where everyone wanted to go. Half a million migrants poured in by sea and tens of thousands of people already in Australia .

Until the gold rushes, most of people in Australia had come from Britain either as convict or as free settlers. But the discovery of gold changed all this and people started to arrive from many different countries to try their luck at the diggings. They were called new chums . Unfortunately, by the time new chums arrived, much of the easy gold had been won and much harder work was now needed to sin shafts. Some new chums had not done much hard work before and they had a terrible time until they became used to it. Many new chums came from countries such as Italy, Poland, Hungary and France. At first they did not speak English at first they did not speak English very well, but they soon learnt. On the whole they fitted in very well with the Australians and many stayed here after the gold ran out. Other people came from countries outside Europe. A large number came from China and they were soon disliked on the goldfields. At that time China was a very poor country and many villages there raised money to send their young men to Australia to dig for gold. One difference between the Chinese miners and the other diggers was that the gold the Chinese found did not belong to them. Instead their sent it back to their village in China where it did not belong to them . Instead theyr sent it back to their village in China where it was used for the good of everybody in the village. The other diggers thought the gold should stay in Australia. On a number of occasions the Australian miners attacked the Chinese and drove them from the goldfields. In 1861 more than a thousand Europeans attacked a few hundreds at lambing Flat in New South Wales. The Chinese were dragged screaming behind galloping horses and the few Chinese women...
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