Science goes along way back into the history of the universe. The current most popular theory of the origin of the universe is the big band theory. But all this leaves the question, what caused the big bang? Science cannot yet explain this making it open to religious speculation. This is the basis of the cosmological argument. The cosmological argument proves the existence of god from the idea that there is a first cause of the universe.
Aquinas version of the cosmological argument try?s to prove Gods existence through motion, cause and effect theory and the contingency theory. According to Aquinas an object will only move if an external force is applied to it. Aquinas?s cause and effect theory suggests that the universe must be an effect of god will. Lastly Aquinas suggested that God is a necessary being to the universe, if he did not exist, we would not exist.
The philosopher Kalam also came up with his own version of the cosmological argument. He believed that the first cause of the universe must have already existed before the universe existed and that this first cause caused the universe to exist. Leibniz believed that there had to be a sufficient reason for the universe to exist and that reason is God.
But there are also philosophers that reject the cosmological argument such as Kant and Hume. Kant would not accept that is any evidence to suggest that God is the first cause of the universe and he believed we do not have sufficient knowledge to support this religious theory. Hume also argued that Aquinas?s theory contradicted itself in saying that objects cannot move themselves or be uncaused and then argue that God is both of these things. He also argued that there maybe a first cause of the universe but this first cause does not necessarily have to be God.
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