Scientific progress and technological innovations have been, along with new ideas of social organization, the principal scope of interest for the vast majority of utopian writers. Whether based on some rational predictions of the future development of science, or belonging to the sphere of pure fantasy, technology in utopian writing has been generally described as a means of achieving the state of universal order and happiness, a way to establish collective prosperity and social equality. However, as the advancement of civilization displayed the possibility of realization of many of the inventions and discoveries foreseen by utopian writers, a number of authors began to recognize the potential threats posed by technological progress. That awareness, which, to a large extent, gave rise to the literary phenomenon of anti-utopia, has been expressed by Nicolas Berdiaeff, whose statement was adopted by Aldous Huxley as a motto of his book:
Les utopies apparaissent comme bien plus réalisables qu’on ne le croyait autrefois. Et nous nous trouvons actuellement devant une question bien autrement angoissente: Comment éviter leur réalisation définitive? . . . Les utopies sont réalisables. La vie marche vers les utopias. Et peut-être un siècle nouveau commence-t-il, un siècle où les intellectuels et la classes cultivée rêveront aux moyens d’éviter les utopies et de retourner à une société non utopique, moins ‘parfaite’ et plus libre (Huxley 1932: 5).
It seems characteristic of most anti-utopias that technology, as portrayed therein, has acquired a definitely hostile and dangerous quality, becoming almost synonymous with dehumanization. It has ceased to serve as a tool employed by mankind in a profitable way for the sake of widespread prosperity and happiness, and has become a supreme force able to impose obedience on men. It may be stated that the natural order of things, as presented in utopian writing, has been reversed – “free, creative man is overcome by his own mechanical and chemical skills” (Brander 1970: 199). He is reduced from master to slave, while technology has assumed the position of supremacy. Still, one should be aware of the fact that it is utilized (although whether controlled is a matter of debate) by a small group forming the ruling class, in order to subordinate the rest of the society. Such is, in brief, the primary function of technology in Brave New World – to control and maintain authority over the whole of population. The community of Utopia depicted in Huxley’s book “represents the triumph of all that he most fears and dislikes: for it is a world in which humanity has been dehumanized, a world in which scientific ‘progress’ has been produced, so to speak, to the nth degree” (Brooke 1954: 22). It is a totalitarian and technocratic society designed by genetic engineering, and regulated by neural conditioning with mind-altering drugs, with a manipulative media system, and “with every action of body and mind predetermined, manipulated, controlled” (Brander 1970: 17).
Perhaps the most striking example of how technology is applied to preserve order in the society and regulate its functioning in Huxley’s Utopia is the issue of procreation. The traditional, natural way of producing offspring is abandoned and strictly forbidden, as it is considered by the authorities a threat to the society’s existence. It is, therefore, replaced by a practice of artificial insemination. The Bokanovsky Process, as it is called, is a method whereby a human egg’s normal development is arrested, then buds, producing many identical eggs. Not only does this method create millions of standardized and ‘technically perfect’ citizens for Utopia, but also enables the leaders of the community maintain supreme control over the number of population and the supply of different...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document