# Goal Programming

**Topics:**Operations research, Decision theory, Optimization

**Pages:**17 (3951 words)

**Published:**December 10, 2012

Chapter 1 LITERATURE SURVEY…………………………………………………….| 1| | |

1.1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................| 1| 1.2 PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS..................................................................................| 2| 1.3 HISTORICAL SKETCH.....................................................................................| 3| 1.4 VARIANTS........................................................................................................| 4| 1.5 APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………..| 5| 1.6 STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES………………………………………………| 6| 1.7 THE FUTURE………………………………………………………………………..| 7| | |

Chapter 2 ADVERTISING MEDIA……………...…………………………………………….| 8| | |

Chapter 3 FORMULATING GOAL PROGRAMMING MODEL..………………………...| 10| | |

3.1 WHAT IS GOAL PROGRAMMING?……………………………………………….| 10| 3.2 ASSUMPTIONS………………………………………………….…………………..| 10| 3.3 COMPONENTS………………………………………..…………………………….| 11| 3.3.1 GOAL CONSTRAINTS…………………………………………………| 11| 3.3.2 OBJECTIVE FUNCTION………………………………………………| 11| 3.3.3 GOAL PROGRAMMING TERMS…………………………………….| 12| 3.3.4 GOAL PROGRAMMING CONTRAINTS…………………………….| 12| 3.4 GOAL PROGRAMMING STEPS…………………………………………………..| 13| 3.5 MODEL TRANSFORMATION BASICS…………………………………………..| 13| 3.6 PRIORITIZING GOALS……………………………………………………………..| 14| | |

Chapter 4 PLANNING AND EXECUTION..………………………………………………...| 16| | |

4.1 AIM…………………………………………………………….……………………..| 16| 4.2 SCOPE……………………………………………………………………………….| 16| 4.3 PLAN OF WORK…………………………………………………..………………..| 16| 4.4 SURVEY FORM…………………………………………………………………….| 17| | |

CONCLUSION………………………………………………………..…………………………..| 18| REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………….| 19| | |

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CHAPTER 1 : GOAL PROGRAMMING THEORY

1.1. INTRODUCTION

Goal Programming, a powerful and effective methodology for the modeling, solution, and analysis of problems having multiple and conflicting goals and objectives, has often been cited as being the “workhorse” of multiple objective optimization (i.e. the solution to problems having multiple, conflicting goals and objectives) as based on its extensive list of successful applications in actual practice. Although goal programming (GP) is itself a development of the 1950s, it has only been since the mid-1970s that Goal Programming has finally received truly substantial and widespread attention. Much of the reason for such interest is due to Goal Programming's demonstrated ability to serve as an efficient and effective tool for the modeling, solution, and analysis of mathematical models that involve multiple and conflicting goals and objectives—the type of models that most naturally represent real-world problems. Yet another reason for the interest in Goal Programming is a result of a growing recognition that conventional (i.e., single objective) mathematical programming methods (e.g., linear programming) do not always provide reasonable answers, nor do they typically lead to a true understanding of and insight into the actual problem. Goal programming is a branch of multi-objective optimization, which in turn is a branch of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), also known as multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM). This is an optimization program. It can be thought of as an extension or generalization of linear programming to handle multiple, normally conflicting objective measures. Each of these measures is given a goal or target value to be achieved. Unwanted deviations from this set of target values are then minimized in an achievement function. This can be a vector or a weighted sum dependent on the goal programming variant used. As satisfaction of the target is deemed to satisfy the decision maker(s), an...

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