A GMO is an organism whose genetic makeup is changed by humans. A genetically modified organism (GMO) is a plant, animal or microorganism whose genetic code has been altered, subtracted, or added (either from the same species or a different species) in order to give it characteristics that it does not have normally.
A GMO is created when DNA from one organism is combined with another organism’s DNA to make one molecule. Scientists do this by cutting and joining DNA from different sources. This forms a new set of genes. They then transfer it into the organism so it has the modified genes. (http://www.i-sis.org.uk/FAQ.php, 11/30/09) With genetic engineering they can make bigger and more nutritious fruit and vegetables. Human embryos can be genetically modified in case it might have a chance of having a disease. If breast cancer is commonly found in a family the scientists can engineer the embryo so that it does not receive that trait. Trees and fruits that are genetically modified can be grown so that pesticides grow naturally in them. Sometimes scientists do not have enough of a material to use it in the lab so they use Bacterial Transformation. There are five steps of Bacterial Transformation. The first step is competency which is preparing the bacterial cells to receive DNA. This step is getting the pores to open up so they allow the genes needed to be put in. Step two is transformation in which pGLO genes (a gene from jelly fish that glows green) are inserted via the pores. Step three is growth in which the substance is just growing, eating, and reproducing. The fourth step is isolation in which you separate the newly transformed cells from the entire population of untransformed cells. Finally, step five is expression which is the phenotypic expression in which arabinose is needed to allow the gene to transcribe and make Green Fluorescent protein (GFP). The arabinose is an on and off switch for the Green fluorescent protein. (In class worksheet, 11/30/09)....
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