Gmat Critical Reason Bible Notes

Topics: Logic, Causality, Reasoning Pages: 31 (8233 words) Published: July 15, 2012
Critical Reasoning Bible Notes
Chapter 2&3 Basic Principles
Basically, GMAT critical reasoning stimulus has two types: an argument or a set of factual statement.

To deal with stimulus, there are three steps:
1. Make a quick analysis of the topic under discussion
2. Read the entire stimulus very carefully
3. Analyze the structure of the stimulus

Based on these steps, there are several primary objectives when reading stimulus: Objective 1: Determine whether the stimulus contains an argument or only a set of factual statement Difference: The lack of a strong reaction is often an indication that you are not reading an argument and are instead reading just a set of facts.

Objective2: If the stimulus contains an argument, identify the conclusion of the argument. If the stimulus contains a fact set, examine each fact.

One Important Principle: Order of presentation has no effect on the logical structure of the argument. The conclusion can appear at the beginning, the middle, or the end of the argument! Objective3: If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or weak. What is crucial here are the hidden assumptions. The context of premises could never be treated as untrue, but the line of reasoning may not be valid. So, the hidden assumptions play crucial role in the line of reasoning.

Objective4: Read closely and know precisely what the author said. Do not generalize! Pay attention to Quantity Indicators & Probability Indicators.

Objective5: Carefully read and identify the question stem. Do not assume that certain words are automatically associated with certain question types.

Objective6: Prephase: After reading the question stem, take a moment to mentally formulate your answer to the question stem.

Objective7: Always read each of the five answer choices.
Objective8: Separate the answer choices into Contenders and Losers. After completing this process, review the Contenders and decide which answer is the correct one. Objective9: If all five answer choices appear to be Losers, return to the stimulus and re-evaluate the argument.

Chapter 4 Must be True Question
You must lock down the understanding required of this question category: what did you read in the stimulus and what do you know on the basis of that reading?

Highly Attention: Numbers & Percentage, Probability Indicators, Modifier Words (Differences between “many, all, entirely, most, etc.”)

You cannot bring in information from outside the stimulus to answer the questions; all of the information necessary to answer the question resides in the stimulus. The correct answer to a Must Be True question can always be proven by referring to the facts sated in the stimulus.

Correct Answers in Must be True Question
1. Prephased Answers
Paraphrased Answers are answers that restate a portion of the stimulus in different terms. Because the language is not exactly the same as in the stimulus, Paraphrased Answers can be easy to miss. Paraphrased Answers are designed to test your ability to discern the author’s exact meaning. Sometimes the answer can appear to be almost too obvious since it is drawn directly from the stimulus.

2. Answers that are the sum of two or more stimulus statement (Combination Answers) Any answer choice that would result from combining two or more statements in the stimulus will be correct.

Incorrect Answers in Must be True Question
1. Could be True or Likely to be True Answers
These answers are attractive because there is nothing demonstrably wrong within them. Regardless, like all incorrect answers, these answers fail the Fact Test.

2. Exaggerated Answers
Exaggerated Answers take information from the stimulus and then stretch that information to make a broaden statement that is not supported by the stimulus.

3. “New” Information...
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