Globalization of Media: Key Issues and Dimensions

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Globalization of Media: Key Issues and Dimensions
Mirza Jan Department of Mass Communication, Gomal University D.I.Khan (NWFP) Pakistan E-mail: mirzajan_5@hotmail.com Tel: +92-0966-9280461; Fax: +92-0966-9280100 Abstract This review paper discusses globalization of media and trends unifying widely different societies, integrating them into one World. Like all popular concepts meant to cover a variety of phenomena, both "interdependence" and "globalization" have many meanings. Developments have been increasingly characterized not by their growth dynamics but by their links to the process of globalization. Geographical closeness or cultural proximity helps media cross borders. This paper highlights that although American media play a prominent role in the global scene, media industries from a number of other countries are also heavily across the world. A handful of firms dominate the globalize part of the media system. Cable and satellite TV, which has been familiar to most Americans, Canadians, and some Europeans for years, is now expanding in most other countries of the world. Among the main issues in globalization of communications media are transborder data flow, cultural imperialism, media and, the flow of information. It discusses the key issues of the power of media ability to intervene in the course of events and to affect their outcome like: Media Markets, Audiences, Advertisers, Finance and Creative Content Keywords: Globalization, measuring globalization, Geographical Proximity, media system, Global Media, Theoretical Models of Cultural, Media and Power, Cultural Imperialism and Political Economy, Media Organizations and Policy and conclusion

1. Introduction
Globalization of media is not a term of global nature. As Sparks (2000) has argued, no media is genuinely global in nature. In addition, the so-called global media’s audience is ‘too small, too rich and too English-speaking to be considered inclusive.’ There is little evidence that supports the existence of a global public sphere and the public sphere remains largely state-oriented. There is no question that all these globalizing trends are made possible with the help of mass media at both the domestic and international level. This process of” globalization” is often portrayed as a positive force which is unifying widely different societies, integrating them into a “global village”, and enriching all in the process. It is variously described as an inevitable by-product of human evolution and progress, as if it were an organic process, governed by the laws of nature. However, globalization is not necessarily a natural progression emerging out of the ordinary communication and interaction of people and cultures around the world. Rather, it results from eliberate human choice by a powerful group of nations, transnational corporations (TNCs) and international organizations which have stakes in the process. The new

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communications and information technologies have provided methods for large corporations to maximize profits by entering foreign markets. Globalization" emerged as a buzzword in the 1990s, just as "interdependence" did in the 1970s, but the phenomena it refers to are not entirely new. Our characterization of interdependence more than 20 years ago now applies to globalization at the turn of the millennium: "This vague phrase expresses a poorly understood but widespread feeling that the very nature of world politics is changing. Like all popular concepts meant to cover a variety of phenomena, both "interdependence" and "globalization" have many meanings. To understand what people are talking about when they use the terms and to make them useful for analysis, we must begin by asking whether interdependence and globalization are simply two words for the same thing, or whether there is something new going on. Globalization of media is probably most pervasive at the level of media industry...
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