Globalization at the Turn of the Millennium
I.Global Political Economies
A.The Spread of Democracy
1.The great appeal of democracy is that is allows for the peaceful resolution of differences between a country's social, cultural, and regional groups. 2.Democratic institutions gained ground in eastern Europe and in Russia during the last decade. 3.Since 1991, democracy has become the norm in Latin America. 4.In Asia, Indonesia and China have moved towards more open political processes. The election of the BJP in India has increased tensions between India and Pakistan, as well as between India's Hindus and Muslims. 5.With the notable exception of South Africa, elections in sub-Saharan Africa have often been used by would-be dictators as the first step in establishing their political and military dominance. 6.Democracy is the exception, not the rule, in the Middle East. 7.In addition to internal factors, the changed politics of the post-Cold War era and the demands of global economic forces have played important roles in contributing to the growth (or decline) of democracy in individual countries. B.Global Politics
1.Since the end of the Cold War, the United Nations has sought to reestablish its role as the world's peacekeeper and defender of human rights. While United Nations peacekeeping missions have had some success, it is often difficult for the member nations to agree on a given course of action. 2.It has been particularly difficult for the international community to agree on how and when to intervene in civil conflicts and when to stop human rights abuses. This fact was illustrated in the slow response of the United States and the European nations to civil war and ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda. C.Arms Control and Terrorism
1.Recent events have raised concerns about terrorism and the proliferation and dissemination of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). 2.Many countries, including the United States, have begun new nuclear weapons programs. 3.Fears about WMDs and terrorism came together in the concern that terrorist organizations, like that led by Osama bin Laden, would gain access to WMDs. 4.President Bush's declaration of a "War on Terrorism" and preemptive strikes by the United States on Afghanistan and Iraq raised fears in much of the world that the United States no longer felt itself bound by international institutions and international law. 5.Disorder in Iraq following the United States invasion has intensified the worldwide debate about the best way to respond to the twin threats of terrorism and WMDs. D.The Global Economy
1.After the collapse of state managed socialist economies in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, free-market capitalism was the only path left to economic growth. 2.Following a decade of rapid growth, a worldwide recession began in 2000. 3.World trade and manufacturing became increasingly integrated and interdependent. 4.Rapid growth occurred in parts of the developing world, as countries made the transition from communism to capitalism. 5.China's steps to open its economy to freer trade and investment helped make it a global economic power. 6.Technology that made it possible to rapidly invest funds in international markets also made it possible to withdraw those funds just as rapidly. 7.From 2000 to 2001, worldwide economic growth slowed from 13 to 1 percent. 8.The boom of the 1990s did little to change historic disparities between rich and poor economic regions. E.Managing the Global Economy
1.To promote economic growth and reduce vulnerabilities, many countries formed free-trade zones and regional trade associations. The strengthening of the European Union (EU) and the creation of the North...