Globalization Diminishes the Role of the State
Globalization is a controversial issue which is discussed in many spheres, such as politics, economics, culture, social sciences. It is an obvious phenomenon of contemporary world: events happening in some part of the world could be known in another in a few seconds. We are watching TV translations from different countries sitting on a couch in our room. People travel around the globe knowing what they are going to see, where to eat and what to do in seemed to be unknown country. People in the most of the states wear the same clothes and eat the same food. We all know that probably in every city we can find McDonalds or Subway, where we will not experience difficulties in ordering food, because we already know their menu. This is globalization from the point of view of the ordinary people and is seems to be a positive thing. But what concerns state as political unity, playing a role on international arena, globalization could be more controversial. And on my opinion it reduces role of state both at international as well as on the national scene. Due to globalization new agents are coming into all spheres of life, including policy and economy, what makes it more complicated for government to control. Big corporations sometimes could play greater role on international arena then government. For example, Russian-Ukrainian gas disputes, which took place several years in a row at New Year’s eves. “These disputes have grown beyond simple business disputes into transnational political issues—involving political leaders from several countries” (AndriyK 2010). There is no definition of state recognized by all and it is varies from author to author. But what is more important is to determine what a sovereign state mean, because it is sovereignty to be threatened by globalization. And some authors think that there is no state without globalization. “A Sovereign state is a state with a defined territory on which it exercises internal and external sovereignty, a permanent population, a government, independence from other states and powers, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states” (Anthony Appleyard, Blue-Haired Lawyer 2009). Sovereignty became a part of a state after Westphalia treaties of 1848. And till now it remains a defining feature of a state, necessary for being a member of the most of international organizations and being capable to participate in equal international relations with other states. Recognition – is the thing which some territories and national unities ate striving for. Taiwan, Kosovo, Basque Country, Abkhazia and others are not considered as independent actors until they gain recognition of international community, which is connected with becoming a member of United Nations Organization. Without it they couldn’t have equal political and economical relationships with other countries. For example, it has practically no sense to trade with Taiwan being in danger to lose such an important partner like Mainland China because its government do not accept any manifestation of independency of the island. Sovereignty is still important, but it has changed. On the one hand it is translated on supranational level, on the other hand – on local level. State is in the centre, linking point. Government controls state boundaries and all the territory; there is no other structure which supposed to do it. Providing security is another crucial mission of a state. Only state has a legitimate monopoly on use of force, due to the theory of Max Weber. But “The ownership, control and sales of military services and equipment has moved out of the ambit of state control and given private actors important authority to decide over the use of force and to define security issues” (Leander 2004). Right of use of force is delegated to higher levels - to international organisations, like NATO, or to lower level – regional authorities and even private...
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