41. With the help of an example discuss the characteristics of globalization. Globalization refers to a fundamental shift in the world economy in which national economies are no longer relatively self-contained entities. Instead, nations are moving toward an interdependent global economic system. Within this new global economy, an American might drive to work in a car designed in Germany that was assembled in Mexico by DaimlerChrysler from components made in the U.S. and Japan that were fabricated from Korean steel and Malaysian rubber. A company does not have to be the size of these multinational giants to facilitate, and benefit from, the globalization of markets. 42. Define globalization and discuss it has changed the business environment? Globalization has created many opportunities for businesses to expand their revenues by selling around the world while at the same time reducing their costs by producing in nations where labor and other inputs are cheap. However, globalization has also produced new threats for companies in the form of increased competition. 41. Compare and contrast a pure democracy and a representative democracy. Which type of democracy is more common today? Why?
The pure form of democracy is based on a belief that citizens should be directly involved in decision making. In contrast, in a representative democracy, citizens periodically elect individuals to represent them. The elected individuals form a government and make decisions on behalf of the electorate. Because a pure democracy is impractical in advanced societies with tens or hundreds of millions of people, representative democracies are far more common in today's world. 42. Explain the differences between common law and civil law systems by the approach of each to contract law. Contracts drafted under a common law framework tend to be very detailed with all contingencies spelled out. In contrast, contracts in a civil law system tend to be much shorter and less specific because many of the issues typically covered in a common law contract are already covered in civil law. 43. What are state-owned companies? Why do they exist? Why do they usually perform poorly? A state-owned company is a company that is owned by a nation's government. After World War II, many social democratic governments nationalized private companies that were to be run for the public good rather than private profit. Great Britain, for example, nationalized so many companies that by the end of the 1970s, state-owned monopolies existed in telecommunications, electricity, gas, coal, and several other industries. However, because state-run companies such as the ones that existed in Great Britain are protected from competition by their monopoly position and guaranteed financial support, they become inefficient. 41. Compare and contrast folkways and mores. Folkways are the routine conventions of everyday life. Generally, folkways are actions of little moral significance. Folkways include rituals and symbolic behavior. In contrast, mores are norms that are seen as central to the functioning of a society and to its social life. Mores have much greater significance than folkways. Accordingly, violating mores can bring serious retribution. 42. What is the difference between a caste system and a class system? A caste system is a closed system of stratification in which social position is determined by the family into which a person is born, and change in that position is usually not possible during an individual's lifetime. The caste system is the most rigid form of social stratification. A caste frequently involves a specific occupation. In contrast, a class system is a less rigid form of social stratification in which social mobility is possible through an individual's personal achievements and/or luck. 43. Discuss why the stratification of a society is important to business. The stratification of a society is significant if it affects the operation of business organizations. In...
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