Globalization

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The term Globalization (or globalisation) refers to processes of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.[1][2] Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.[3] Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discovery and voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium BCE.[4][5] In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly. The term globalization has been increasing use since the mid-1980s and especially since the mid-1990s.[6] In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge.[7] Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization.[8] Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment. Contents

1 Overview
1.1 Etymology and usage
2 History
2.1 Archaic
2.2 Early Modern
2.3 Modern
3 Aspects
3.1 Global business organization
3.1.1 International trade
3.1.2 Tax havens
3.1.3 International tourism
3.1.4 International sports
3.1.5 Illicit international trade
3.2 Economic globalization
3.2.1 Global financial system
3.2.2 Capital flight
3.2.3 Measuring globalization
3.3 Sociocultural globalization
3.3.1 Culture
3.3.2 Politics
3.3.3 Internet
3.3.4 Population growth
3.3.5 Health
3.4 Global natural environment
3.5 Global workforce
3.5.1 International migration
4 Support and criticism
4.1 Proponents
4.1.1 Economic liberalism and free trade
4.1.2 Global democracy
4.1.3 Global civics
4.2 Critiques
4.2.1 Anti-globalization movement
4.2.2 Opposition to capital market integration
4.2.3 Global justice and inequality
4.2.4 Anti-consumerism
4.2.5 Anti-global governance
4.2.6 Environmentalist opposition
5 Key journals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Overview

Extent of the Silk Road and Spice trade routes owned by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 spurring exploration Humans have interacted over long distances for thousands of years. The overland Silk Road that connected Asia, Africa, and Europe is a good example of the transformative power of translocal exchange that existed in the "Old World". Philosophy, religion, language, the arts, and other aspects of culture spread and mixed as nations exchanged products and ideas. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Europeans made important discoveries in their exploration of the oceans, including the start of transatlantic travel to the "New World" of the Americas. Global movement of people, goods, and ideas expanded significantly in the following centuries. Early in the 19th century, the development of new forms of transportation (such as the steamship and railroads) and telecommunications that "compressed" time and space allowed for increasingly rapid rates of global interchange.[9] In the 20th century, road vehicles, intermodal transport, and airlines made transportation even faster. The advent of electronic communications, most notably mobile phones and the Internet, connected billions of people in new ways by the year 2010.

Eastern Telegraph Company 1901 chart of undersea telegraph cabling, an example of modern globalizing technology in the beginning of the 20th century.

Airline personnel from the "Jet set" age, circa 1960.
Etymology and usage
The term globalization is derived from...
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