Globalisation and Marginalisation

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This essay will critically assess the ways in which social and economic inequalities are generated by global processes. It will show an understanding of sociological, anthropological and social policy debates about globalisation and critical appreciation of globalisation in the context of the historical development of capitalism. The essay will also demonstrate knowledge of a range of global processes, institutions and flows and their impact on people’s lives in various parts of the world and of how global processes, institutions and flows generate, or contribute to, marginalization and inequality. Inequalities are the inconsistencies and differences between individuals, groups, societies and countries and have an enormous impact on people’s lives. They exist because of global processes and globalisation which impact on the delivery of welfare, a plan originally developed to level out inequalities within societies (Giddens 2009). One global process is migration, which is the movement of people across national borders through a variety of global and social processes which can affect or even increase social and economic inequalities (Giddens 2009). This essay will discuss globalisation, global processes and then migration, providing case studies to aid arguments and opinions. It is important to see how globalisation affects welfare, not just for the poorer undeveloped countries, but also for the more developed richer countries. Giddens (2009) speaks of globalisation in terms of economic, political and cultural interconnectedness across the world but other elements of globalisation, such as the development of connections between various different places in the world, are discussed by Deacon (2007 p8). This development provides routes for various flows which stem from the above elements of globalisation, including that of communication, production, people, capital and other commodities (Deacon 2007). Martell (2010 p2-4) highlights the importance of an interdisciplinary partnership between the above elements, particularly the economic and political dimensions and the social and cultural dimensions which are often considered and analysed in isolation. He argues that these elements have a causal relationship where each can be dependent on another and gives an example that an individual can enjoy the cultural experience of watching television, due to the fact that he resides in a wealthy, democratic, developed country where access to such resources are readily available to a vast majority of its citizens showing that economic and political factors impact greatly on this cultural element (Martell 2010 p2). Whilst Giddens (2009) states that globalisation is a concept that posits about the world’s growing dependency on inter-connectedness, other theories include those of the sceptics and globalisers (Schirato and Webb 2003). The sceptics argue that globalisation is simply a continuation of trends (Giddens 2009; Schiarto and Webb 2003) but this idea in itself causes discussion between critics as some suggest the trends began with European colonial expansion (Schiarto and Webb 2003) while others pinpoint the beginning of globalisation to the trend of migration (Martell 2010). Sceptics also reject the view that globalisation reduces the role of the state, instead highlighting the fact that national governments are often the driving forces behind international trade and policies. They believe that the bulk of modern trade still exists between three main areas of Europe, Asia and North America as it did in the past. Therefore they contend that it is not genuine globalisation but just a continuation of growth of European colonial expansion from the late 1800s until the First World War (Giddens 2009; Schiarto and Webb 2003). Divergently, hyperglobalisers believe that globalisation is a new phenomenon, creating a borderless world that reduces the power and autonomy of nation states (Mishra 1999) which has made the world a drastically...
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