The word ‘globalization’ has dominated the mouths, ears and eyes of us in today’s world. We speak of it; we hear of it, we see it. The talk about globalization has been brought about as early as the 18th century. But do we know what it means exactly? Do we take the definition of globalization for granted? Has the definition of globalization remained the same since two decades ago? Conflicting schools of thought exist as such as John Urry, Zygmunt Bauman, Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens and Manuel Castells seemed to find what globalization is. This essay will address what is globalization with referring to the works of Anthony Giddens and Manuel Castells. ANTHONY GIDDENS
Anthony Giddens is regarded something of a social science phenomenon. He is one in a few theorists that many people around the word cite. He has helped to develop a whole new lexicon with which we grasp what it means to live in a rapidly changing world of modernity: structuration, practical consciousness, time-space distanciation, manufactured risks, life politics (Chris Pierson, 1998). Anthony Giddens is one of the leading British sociologists of the post-war period. His writings are widespread beyond borders. Particularly in the Caribbean, Anthony Giddens contributions are well known in the sociology syllabus for CAPE students. Giddens even expanded on the famous sociologist, Emile Durkheim study of suicide. He wrote books such as the Capitalism and Modern Social Theory (1971), The Class Structure of Advanced Societies (1973) and New Rules of Sociological Method (1976) just to name a few.
The Great Globalization Debate
After the devastated September 11th terrorism attack on the United States much have been accounted for as to whether this is the end of globalization or the beginning of the post globalization era. The world after 11 September confronts not so much the end of globalization as a growing ‘clash of globalizations’ (Hoffman, 2002). This terrorism attack was placed in the eyes of the media. When the second plane had hit, over a billion people worldwide was viewing it at the exact moment it happened. This was certainly due to a product of globalization since television broadcastings is not only limited to state bound but internationally.
Although the references to globalization have become popular over the last two decades, it can be recorded back to a much earlier existence. It origins lie in the work of many nineteenth and early twentieth century intellectuals, from Saint-Simon and Karl Marx to students of geopolitics such as MacKinder. But it was not until the 1960’s and the early 1970’s the term ‘globalization’ was actually used. In the context of the debate about the growing interconnectedness of human affairs, world systems theory, theories of complex interdependence and the notion of globalization itself emerged as largely rival accounts of the processes of which the fate of the states and the peoples was becoming more intertwined (Modelski, 1972; Wallerstein, 1974; Keohane and Nye, 1977).
Arguments aroused between those who consider contemporary globalization is a real and significant historical development are called the globalists and those who conceive it as a primarily ideological or social construction which has insufficient explanatory value called the sceptics. In the light of David Held and Anthony McGrew in The Global Transformations Reader (2000), the sceptics, the concept is internationalization and not globalization whereas the globalists say one world shaped by highly intensive, extensive rapid flows, movements and network across regions and continents. With regards to power, the sceptics view it as intergovernmentalism however the globalists says erosion of state sovereignty and the rise of multilateralism. With culture, is the resurgence of nationalism said the sceptics and the globalists argued that it is the emergence of global popular culture, hybridization. Referring to the sceptics, economies...
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