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III. Globalization
1. What is globalization?
Globalization has become the dominant issue in the development of the present world. Globalization processes affect all spheres of life, namely marketing economy, political and social systems. Thus, globalization refers not only to the commodity production, global markets, supraterritorial spaces for finance and banking, or tourism but also to the consolidation of the global communication system. These factors are strictly connected with the growing importance of translation, which despite the fact of English being the global lingua franca, have a great impact on communication. According to the Oxford Dictionary of English the term globalization denotes “the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale.” (2006) Held defines globalization as “the widening, deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life”. (Held et al., 1999:2) In this respect it can be said that one of the fundamental features of globalization is overcoming the spatial barriers and the centrality of knowledge of information. Therefore, a significant increase in the mobility of people can be noticed as well as the heightened contact between different linguistic communities. In the following subchapters the author will characterize the main issues referring to globalization which influence the translation in the printed media. 1.1. Time and space compression in relation to the technological development Globalization understood as the compression of the world according to David Harvey can be designated as speeding up of the pace of life while also overcoming spatial barriers. (Harvey1989:240). The key technical innovations in the 19th century namely the invention of the telegraph or the use of steam shipping or the railroad influenced the process of time and space compression. The world in the 20th century overcame other significant changes, in particular the information technology revolution. The use of silicon for the production of semiconductors, the invention of the computer chip, the invention of the integrated circuit, or the emergence of PC software started the IT revolution, which influenced the speed of the information flow and information processing. However, the important issue is that these innovations are applied in the further information processing and generation. The technological development changed the work of journalists and translators through ages. The increase of information and its centrality has created the situation where there is too much work for translators and journalists. Thus for Connie Mayerson “technology and automation are the only scalable solution to the repeated and boring tasks but there will always be a place for human intervention”. (Myerson 2001 13-14) The significant change related to the development of machines is the process of externalization. In informational society this process of the externalization of the brain. For this reason, tasks that were done formerly by humans are now done by computers. The dematerialization of tasks results in the intellectualization of work. Thus fewer but more qualified workers are needed. The shift from the industrial to the informational society implies the violation of manageable limits in volume growth for human translators, in particular when the material must be translated by a deadline.. According to Michael Cronin “the change in our relationship to time that human beings have to change is that humans are being conflated with their machines.” (Cronin: 109) Thus the speed is seen as the main drawback of the work journalists and translators. The shortened time scale for the translation in the Post-Fordist economy has affected the whole publishing industry, which in the English speaking world has been transformed in the whole series of mergers between companies and acquisitions through the...
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