Globalisation

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NOTESFORTHETEACHER
Most regions of the world are getting increasingly
interconnected. While this interconnectedness
across countries has many dimensions —
cultural, political, social and economic — this
chapter looks at globalisation in a more limited
sense. It defines globalisation as the integration
between countries through foreign trade and
foreign investments by multinational
corporations (MNCs). As you will notice, the more
complex issues of portfolio investment have been
left out.
If we look at the past thirty years or so, we
find that MNCs have been a major force in the
globalisation process connecting distant regions
of the world. Why are the MNCs spreading their
production to other countries and what are the
ways in which they are doing so? The first part
of the chapter discusses this. Rather than
relying on quantitative estimates, the rapid rise
and influence of the MNCs has been shown
through a variety of examples, mainly drawn
from the Indian context. Note that the examples
are an aid to explain a more general point. While
teaching, the emphasis should be on the ideas
and examples are to be used as illustrations.
You can also creatively use comprehension
passages like the one given after Section II to
test and reinforce new concepts.
Integration of production and integration of
markets is a key idea behind understanding the
process of globalisation and its impact. This has
been dealt with at length in this chapter,
highlighting the role of MNCs in the process. You
have to ensure that the students grasp this idea
with sufficient clarity, before moving on to the
next topic.
Globalisation has been facilitated by several
factors. Three of these have been highlighted:
rapid improvements in technology, liberalisation
of trade and investment policies and, pressures
from international organisations such as the
WTO. Improvement in technology is a fascinating
area for students and you may, with a few
directions, encourage them to do their own
explorations. While discussing liberalisation, you
have to keep in mind that the students are
unaware of what India was like in the
pre-liberalisation era. A role-play could be
conceived to compare and contrast the pre and
post-liberalisation era. Similarly, international
negotiations under WTO and the uneven
balances in power are interesting subjects that
can be covered in a discussion mode rather than
as lectures.
The final section covers the impact of
globalisation. To what extent has globalisation
contributed to the development process? This
section draws on the topics covered in Chapters
1 and 2 (for example, what is a fair development
goal), which you can refer to. Also, examples and
activities drawn from the local environment are
a must while discussing this section. This might
include contexts that have not been covered in
the chapter, such as the impact of imports on
local farmers, etc. Collective brainstorming
sessions can be conducted to analyse such
situations.
Sources for Information
The call for a fairer globalisation has been given,
among others, by the International Labour
Organisation — www.ilo.org. Another interesting
resource is the WTO website http://www.wto.org.
It gives access to the variety of agreements that
are being negotiated at the WTO. For company
related information, most MNCs have their own
websites. If you want to critically look at
the MNCs, one recommended website is
www.corporatewatch.org.uk.
CHAPTER 4 : GLOBALISATION AND THE INDIAN ECONOMY
54 UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
GLOBALISATION AND THE INDIAN ECONOMY 55
GLOBALISATION
AND THE INDIAN ECONOMY
CHAPTER 4
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