global warming

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Topic 1

Global Warming and the Green Movement

Executive summary
Base on the understanding of global warming and through the terrible experience of living environment that we have already known human is the chief culprit. It is an international issue and everyone has the responsibility to protect our earth. In this assignment, we will discuss how does global warming happen and explain how to remedy it.

What is global warming?
"Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth. This is a type of greenhouse effect".(New Mexico Solar Energy Association, n.d.) As we know, global warming is an international issue and it becomes more seriously. The human activity cause the average temperature of earth's atmosphere and oceans.

Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish scientist said that "fossil fuel combustion may eventually result in enhanced global warming" (Maslin, M., 2004) in 1896, and he proposed a relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature. But it was thought than human influences were insignificant compared to natural forces, and water vapor was seen as a much more influential greenhouse gas. "Since 1980's that the global annual mean temperature curve started to rise" (Maslin, M., 2004), and people started to realize the global warming is coming. There are two main factors that cause the temperature changes: First. greenhouse gases. This is the most important factor which are from burning fossil fuels, population growing and land-use change. "Greenhouse gases are those that can absorb and emit infrared radiation, but not radiation in or near the visible spectrum". (Karl TR & Trenberth KE,2003). It includes H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3 and CFC3. "Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are determined by the balance between sources (emissions of the gas from human activities and natural systems) and sinks (the removal of the gas from the atmosphere by conversion to a different chemical compound). The proportion of an emission remaining in the atmosphere after a specified time is the " Airborne fraction " (AF)" (IPCC, 2007). In other word, the annual AF is the ratio of the atmospheric in a given year to that year's total emissions. According to Canadell, JG that for CO2 the AF over the last 50 years (1956-2006) has been increasing at 0.25 ±0.21%/year (PNAS, 2007). Since the Industrial Revolution begin, people start to burn fossil fuels such as liquid fuels (gasoline, fuel oil), solid fuels (coal) and gaseous fuels (natural gas) that lead to carbon dioxide concentrations increasing every year in the air. The following graph shows the CO2 levels over the past 160 thousand years (the upper curve, with units indicated on the right hand side of the graph). If we do not curb emissions that the current level will be increased over the next hundred years, it is also shown (the part of the curve which goes way up high, to the right of the current level, is the projected CO2 rise). The projected increase in CO2 is very startling and disturbing. Changes in the Earth's average surface temperature are also shown (the lower curve, with units on the left). Please note that it parallels the CO2 level curve is very well.

Next, the population from year 1800 until now is over 7 billion by the "United States Census Bureau (USCB)". This is the diagram of the world population estimates from 1800 to 2100 on the below:

The frequent human activity produce greenhouse gas and leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, CH4, N2O and O3. To satisfy the demand of people living, many industries produce such as refrigerator and plastic that make the hazardous substance to pollute the environment and get earth warming. Last, "land use change (mainly deforestation in the...
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