Global Thematic on Geographical Features

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The Ancient Egyptian civilization was completely dependent on its geographical features. The Nile River was the Ancient Egyptians lifeline. Egypt became the first unified civilization under one government through the Nile River, and it caused Egypt’s farming economy to flourish.

Egypt is located in North East Africa. The fertile lands of the Nile Valley attracted Stone Age farmers. People migrated from the Mediterranean area, from hills and deserts along the Nile, and from other parts of Africa. People settled along the Black Land, or the rich irrigated land of the Nile River, which is the longest river in the world. Beyond the Black Land, was a desert that stretched across North Africa, known as the Red Land. The desert could not really be settled in, but protected Egyptians against invaders. The Nile River was the most important geographical feature of Egypt. Unlike most rivers, its floods were very predictable. People awaited the floods every spring, it soaked the land with water and deposited a layer of rich silt, or soil.

Geographical features had a huge effect on Egypt’s government. Because of the Nile River, Egypt was able to become the first unified civilization. At first, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. The Nile River actually had such an effect on life in Egypt that Upper Egypt was in the south and Lower Egypt was in the North, due to the way the river flowed. Eventually in 310 B.C. King Menes from Lowe Egypt became so powerful, that he was able to unite both Upper and Lower Egypt. Without the Nile River, he would never have been able to do this. He used the Nile as a highway connect both kingdoms and unify them under one central government. A dynasty, or a ruling family where power was passed through generations, ruled their government. The government had different departments run by different officials, which is known as a bureaucracy. The pharaoh had complete control over all life in Egypt, because he was...
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