The objective of the present study is to evaluate corporate global success and some of its determinants as a single case study of Nokia Group. The rationale for the research approach of a single case is that Nokia represents an extreme and unique case of reaching global success in telecommunications industry (see Yin 1994: 39). Global success in the scale like Nokia occurs so rarely that we have been unable to establish any common patterns for success. Thus, any single case is worth documenting and analyzing. For global success cases see for example Benjamin (1993) for Honda, Shibata (1993) for Sony, and Pulkkinen (1997) for Nokia (see also Zhan 1998). In general terms global success is a determinant of large number of factors, such as environment, management, products, strategy system, and information systems. In this study we shall concentrate mainly on three such factors: environment, strategy system and management accounting systems. The case description and analysis is based on several sources, for example papers, articles, researches and books published of Nokia in English and in Finnish, Nokia's internet pages, and presentations of Nokia's strategic managers. No direct interviews of Nokia's management are used at the present stage of research. We have organized the paper in nine smaller sections. First, the introduction describes the research approach and the background of Nokia's strategy. The second section introduces Nokia's business organization while the third section gives background figures about its financial success. We mainly define success in terms of growth and profitability but pay attention also to finance. Especially, we are interested to see how MASs in Nokia have succeeded to balance growth and profitability to control finance. The fourth section deals with business environment describing the strategic challenges that Nokia is facing. Fifthly, we evaluate corporate strategy to introduce a framework for assessment. The sixth section describes Nokia's current strategic management and control system in this framework while the seventh section shortly concentrates on Nokia's way to build its strategy. Thus this section tries to assess the importance of the strategy system to success. The characteristics of MASs implemented in Nokia are critically discussed in the eighth section to show their role in success. Finally, the last section makes a summary and an evaluation of the case. Background of the case
Nokia's history dates back to 1865 when the Finnish mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a wood-pulp mill in Southern Finland and started manufacturing paper. Since those early days, the company has evolved first into a conglomerate encompassing several industries ranging from paper to chemicals and rubber products and in the 1990s with a clearly defined strategy into a dynamic, global telecommunications company. The groundwork for telecommunications was already laid in the 1960s, as Nokia was researching the field of radio transmission in its electronics department. In the late 1970s, mobile phones and telecommunications infrastructure products were developed for both domestic and international customers. In the 1980s and 1990s, Nokia became a global leader in digital communication technologies. From the very beginning, Nokia has faced competition from established international competitors in the open domestic telecommunications markets. Among other factors, the ability to exploit the opportunities created by continuous technological and market change has helped Nokia develop into the company it is today. Rumelt et al (1995: 567-568) present two competing approaches as regards to the role of corporate level in multibusiness firms. Corporate-level strategic management can give: 1. Emphasis on value creation or
2. Emphasis on loss prevention.
According to the first...