Global Positioning System

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Global Positioning System

Abstract-
Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only system today able to show ones own position on the earth any time in any weather, anywhere. This paper addresses this satellite based navigation system at length. The different segments of GPS viz. space segment, control segment, user segment are discussed. In addition, how this amazing system GPS works, is clearly described. The various errors that degrade the performance of GPS are also included. DIFFERENTIAL GPS, which is used to improve the accuracy of measurements, is also studied. The need, working and implementation of DGPS are discussed at length. Finally, the paper ends with advanced application of a dual-use technology GPS.

Keywords-Global positioning system, segments, differential GPS applications.

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Satellite Navigation

1. A satellite navigation or SAT NAV system is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line-of-sight by radio from satellites. Receivers calculate the precise time as well as position, which can be used as a reference for scientific experiments. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system or GNSS 2. The first satellite navigation system was Transit, a system deployed by the US military in the 1960s. Transit's operation was based on the Doppler effect: the satellites traveled on well-known paths and broadcast their signals on a well known frequency. The received frequency will differ slightly from the broadcast frequency because of the movement of the satellite with respect to the receiver. By monitoring this frequency shift over a short time interval, the receiver can determine its location to one side or the other of the satellite, and several such measurements combined with a precise knowledge of the satellite's orbit can fix a particular position 3. Modern systems are more direct. The satellite broadcasts a signal that contains orbital data (from which the position of the satellite can be calculated) and the precise time the signal was transmitted. The orbital data is transmitted in a data message that is superimposed on a code that serves as a timing reference. The satellite uses an atomic clock to maintain synchronization of all the satellites in the constellation. The receiver compares the time of broadcast encoded in the transmission with the time of reception measured by an internal clock, thereby measuring the time-of-flight to the satellite. Several such measurements can be made at the same time to different satellites, allowing a continual fix to be generated in real time using an adapted version of trilateration

4. The original motivation for satellite navigation was for military applications. Satellite navigation allows for hitherto impossible precision in the delivery of weapons to targets, greatly increasing their lethality whilst reducing inadvertent casualties from mis-directed weapons. ( Guided bomb). Satellite navigation also allows forces to be directed and to locate themselves more easily, reducing the fog of war. In these ways, satellite navigation can be regarded as a force multiplier.

B. Introduction to GPS

1. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is changing the way we work and play. You can use GPS technology when you are driving, flying, a) fishing, sailing, hiking, running, biking, working, or exploring. With a GPS receiver, you have an amazing amount of information at your b) fingertips. Here are just a few examples of how you can use GPS technology. c) Know precisely how far you have run and at what pace while...
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