Global Pharmaceutical Industry

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INTRODUCTION
According to Hunter s. Thomas "you can turn your back on person, but never turn your back on a drug, especially when it's waving a razor sharp hunting." The global pharmaceutical industry had done tremendous contribution to mankind, but now pharmaceutical companies are facing tough time in a decade. The case is broken in to different parts which is emphasized on how internal and external factors affecting the industry firstly, the main environmental forces currently affecting the industry through PEST analysis. Secondly, the implications of the changes in business environment that is internal factors through porter's five force theory. Finally, the use and limitations of the tools applied to solve case are discussed.

ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION
The present pharmaceutical industries are non-assembled and more of competitive but it had emerged in early 19th century in the Rhine valley near Basel Switzerland where dyestuffs were found to have antiseptic properties. Companies like Hoffman-la rochy, Sandoz, Novartis are all started as Rhine based family dyestuff and chemical companies, which are still doing tremendous business even to day. Slowly these chemical companies started making pharmaceuticals and synthetic chemicals and evolved as global players. In early 1940's the industry showed drastic changes such as introduction of penicillin and other drugs. In 1960's industry growing rapidly with the setting up of R&D not only this economies prospered by the spending on health care in same period. In 1970's industry showed major development but a strong regulatory controls also came into existence with this development, and this regulatory controls had removed the rule of permanent patent to some fixed period which resulted in birth of branded generics.

ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES EFFECTING PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY
The scan of external macro environment in which the firm operates can be expressed in terms P- POLITICAL
E-ECONOMICAL
S-SOCIAL
T-TECHNOLOGY

POLITICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE SECTOR
Political factors includes government regulations and legal issues defines both formal and informal rules under which firm operates some example like tax policy, trade restrictions and tariffs, political stability. Political arena has huge influence up on the regulations of business and the spending power of consumers and other business. Over many years the pharmaceuticals industry has increased political attentions because of increase in recognitions of the economic important of healthcare as a component of social welfare . It takes 10-15 years on average to experiment drug to travel from lab to patient consumption, as patent protection is fixed that is only 20 years but companies has to spend 15 years on experiments by the time it reaches to the market the patent will be almost comes to expired and which will result in birth of generic medicines which has exactly same ingredients as of branded drugs but shows huge difference in price, because the generic brand does not spend on clinical trials so the entry of generic are the major impact on pharmacy industry because of the legal policy set by political forces example in us 84% of sales had been dropped in 12 weeks by Allegra hay fever treatment because of expiry of patent in 2006. Another major problem affecting the industry in many countries are monophony which means only one powerful purchaser who are government. Since 1980 government around the world attracting pharmaceuticals as a politically easy target in their effort to control l in increasing health care expenditure like price and reimbursement controls and also the industry loosed both public and political support to resist this change. In 1990 the effect of economic recession had lead to fall in tax revenue, the government forever changing cost containment plans had become operations of the company unstable in European market which is highly fragmented, moreover the expansion of EU had provided many opportunities...
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