University of Phoenix
CJA/484: Criminal Justice Administration Capstone
October 31, 2011
”Global crime is intertwined with revolutionary technological, financial, communications, economic, cultural, and political changes that characterize globalization, and it is increasingly difficult to separate criminal activities from legitimate global transactions. As national boundaries become more absorbent and as different legal and political systems are more integrated, uncertainties about the legality of various activities abound. What some countries regard as serious problems are often viewed as lower priorities for others. Furthermore, different countries—influenced by divergent cultural attitudes and beliefs adopt different approaches to solving problems.”(Payne 2011) “Global crime has existed with legal commerce for centuries. In fact, crime has been an integral component of human society. By diminishing the significance of geographic distance, globalization enables criminal networks to grow alongside legal global activities and to establish connections within many different countries. Moises Naim observed that criminal networks have benefited more than nation-states from the information revolution, economic links, and other aspects of globalization.” (Moises Naim 2003)
Although globalization has contributed to increased economic equality among and within nations. Not only do poor people perceive themselves as losers in the process of globalization, they have little incentive to adhere to rules that they perceive to be adverse to their interests. For example, convincing coca farmers in Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia that they should not participate in illegal drug production has been difficult. Similarly, small farmers in Afghanistan continue to produce poppies used to make heroin. Although organized crime imposes excessive burdens on society, particularly the poor, many criminal groups, in order to gain political influence and legitimacy, invest in social services, athletic facilities, housing, and medical services. These areas have been largely neglected by many governments as part of the privatization process required by economic globalization. Ultimately, global crime is integrated into the fabric of these societies and enjoys significant official and unofficial protection. In some cases, weak institutional capabilities have prevented governments from reducing global crime. Consequently, there has been an unprecedented escalation in crimes such as trade in pirated goods, illegal arms, human trafficking, stolen art, and illegal drugs.
Just as individuals use the Internet to conduct legal business, organized crime as well as individuals take advantage of this technology to commit crimes. In fact, a national survey commissioned by IBM Corporation in 2006 found that most Internet users believe that they are more likely to be victims of cybercrime than a physical crime. In 2008, the U.S. government discovered that roughly 41 million credit and debit card numbers were stolen by criminals from the United States, Estonia, China, Belarus, and Estonia. Cybercrimes are standard crimes committed online or harmful behavior that is connected to computers. Examples of cybercrimes are fraud, pornography, smuggling, copyright and software piracy, identity theft, and extortion. The proliferation of online shopping has been a boon for cybercriminals. EBay, the biggest online marketplace, has roughly 180 million members worldwide, who are connected to the Internet, and more than 60 million items for sale at any particular moment. Both distance and anonymity conspire to render these global online shopping centers perfect places for fraudulent activities. As a marketplace that links buyers and sellers, eBay has very little control over transactions.
The essential role of computer software in global computer operations...