Global outsourcing of American products and services is a trend that is becoming increasingly popular with large corporations. For the same services provided in the United States, corporations are finding quality work in other countries for a fraction of the cost. The country currently at the forefront of this trend is India. This paper will discuss companies that outsource business to foreign countries and also why they are chose to. The ethical implications to both countries in these situations will also be discussed.
Many corporations are experiencing significant cost savings by outsourcing work to developing countries across the globe. Some advantages of global outsourcing are: technically skilled, inexpensive labor; multi-lingual workforce; potential 24/7 global tech support; global prestige; local market access advantages; lower duties and tariffs; low cost delivery; and after sales service. (http://www.wsa1.org) "Developing nations benefit by providing local viable careers for their educated populations, attracting foreign investments in their infrastructure, and a general increase in the standard of living." (http://cseserv.engr.scu.edu) These advantages make a strong case for outsourcing, but there are many disadvantages that are being discounted or overlooked.
Some disadvantages noted by corporations are: political risk; loss of quality control over manufacturing, brand, and support; misrepresentation of the company; IPR concerns; brand management; channel conflict (gray market, territory); stricter labor laws; bribery and kickback pressure; and productivity. (http://www.wsa1.org) There is also the possibility of a negative impact to the American job market. Issues surrounding this impact to our job market are not frequently mentioned during discussions about whether or not to send business overseas. Finally, there are many ethical questions and dilemmas involved with these decisions. These ethical dilemmas affect individuals in America as well as those in the overseas countries. In spite of these disadvantages, many major corporations have decided to outsource to foreign countries, indicating that the advantages are worth the risk.
Several corporations have already experienced difficult situations associated with working in these developing countries. For example, the Nike Corporation was recently under attack over allegations of poor labor practices in Vietnam. In 1996, workers from the Vietnam plant reported cases of "physical abuse, sexual abuse, salary below minimum wage and debilitating quota systems." (http://www.saigon.com/~nike/) Cooperation between US labor groups and Vietnam organizations was by the intervention of the Nike Corporation. It is alleged that Nike sent a letter to a government official "accusing US labor activists of harboring a secret agenda to change the government in Vietnam." (http://www.saigon.com/~nike/) Many workers' rights and anti-sweatshop organizations are working together in an attempt to convince Nike Corporation to treat its overseas workers fairly. (http://www.saigon.com/~nike/)
In 2001, an international human rights group filed a lawsuit against the ExxonMobil Oil Company. In this law suit, ExxonMobil was accused of "actively abetting human rights abuses in Indonesia." ExxonMobil hired local army units to protect their natural gas fields in the Aceh province. These military units were supplied with the equipment necessary to build interrogation and torture centers, and dig mass graves. "The case brought on behalf of 11 Achenese villagers, accuse ExxonMobil for their involvement in the murder, torture, and sexual abuse of the local population." (http://news.bbc.co.uk) ExxonMobil denies all allegations brought against the corporation. Due to the possible impact of these allegations to the United States, adjudication of this case has been postponed several times. (http://www.laborrights.org/)
In 2001, Coca...