* Material removed from a solid block until the desired shape is reached 2. Formative
* Mechanical forces applied to material to form it into the desired shape (includes bending, moulding and casting) 3. Additive
* Material manipulated so that successive pieces of it combine to gradually 'GROW' the part What is manufacturing?
1. The transformation of raw materials into finished products. 2. The sourcing of raw materials the distribution of finished products to the customer 3. The design of products, the processing of material, distribution and customer service following the sale. # The full cycle of activities from research, design and development, production, logistics, and service provision to end of life management
1. Craft Production
2. Mass Production
3. Lean Manufacturing
4. Automated Manufacturing
5. Agile Manufacturing
Early car production - summary
1. Workforce highly skilled in design, machine operations, fitting. 2. Trained apprentices, Self-employed contractors to assemblers 3. Extremely decentralised operations. Different machine shops 4. would supply their own designs for each component
5. The system was co-ordinated by the entrepreneur
6. The use of general purpose machine tools to perform operations on metal and wood 7. Very low production volume <1000 per year. 50 built to same design. None identical! Early production – the problems
1. Very slow
2. Production costs were high – did not drop with volume 3. Only the rich could afford cars
4. Users (or their chauffeurs) also had to be mechanics
5. Consistency and reliability did not exist
6. Inability of small workshops to develop new technologies 7. Something new was needed…
Mass Production – Philosophy
1. Very little Capital expenditure resulted in massive increase in productivity and reduction in labour * It was the philosophy or approach, not the technology advancements that drove increases in productivity 2. Ford created manufacturing economies of scale – the more cars that were made, the more the cost per vehicle fell Mass Production Characteristics
Division of Labour:
1. Previously – fitters were skilled craftsmen
2. Now worker undertook one task – put two bolts on.
* Narrowly skilled / unskilled
3. In addition to the low paid assemblers, there were specialists for inspection, tool repair, maintenance etc 4. At the end of the production line the cars would often not work, so there were skilled rework men – much like early fitters in craft production era. New breed of Industrial Engineer:
1. Designed production machinery
2. Identified production faults and re-designed components 3. Specialists in certain aspects of the car
* As time passed on, in the 1960s and ’70s, these engineers became too specialist, often having a very narrow expertise of the car. * Examples of such specialism would include ‘door locking mechanism on the Ford Falcon’. Tools:
1. Ford’s engineers developed dedicated machines able to machine components very quickly. 2. These were automated or semi-automated processes.
3. The skills of the old craft production machinists were now embodied in the machine. 4. This meant unskilled workers could now be used to load parts into the machine – performing ‘complex tasks’. Organization:
1. Henry Ford demanded ever increasing closer tolerances on components and tighter delivery schedules 2. Raw materials and component manufacture was brought in-house 3. Ford sites included steel mills, glass plants, machining and assembly.
Q: What were the competitive drivers for Mass Production?
Why would Mass Production not work in Japan?
1. Japan had a very small domestic market demanding a wide range of vehicles. 2. The war had ravaged...