NURS 03401 Community Health Nursing
Eileen Pummer RN, MSN, CPHQ
Suzanne Taylor RN, MSN
This paper examines Singapore’s demographics that include the population breakdown, socioeconomic status (SES), and health indicators like costs for treatments, birth and mortality rates, and major health issues. Along with a discussion of health indicators, there is also a review of how Singaporeans view health, the financing of healthcare, and who provides the healthcare. The advantages of the Singaporean healthcare system are assessed as well as an analysis on areas that need improvement.
The country of Singapore is located in Southeast Asia in between Malaysia and Indonesia and is comprised of an island and islets. It is roughly 275 square miles, which is the smaller than the city of San Diego. Around 1819, the British colonized the island and turned it into a major trading post between Malaysia, China, and India (Ministry of Communication and Information (MCI), 2009). Singapore became an independent nation in 1965. As of 2011, the Ministry of Communication and Information (MCI) stated that Singapore’s gross domestic product (GDP) totaled USD $327 million. The Ministry of Statistics, Singapore recorded 3.31 million people that were employed and a 1.9% unemployment rate in September 2012 (Department of Statistics, Singapore, 2013). Along with a low unemployment rate, Singapore’s educational system ranks fifth in the world with 96.1% of its population over the age 15 having the ability to read and write (Ministry of Communication and Information (MCI), 2009). Singapore’s Health Indicators Compared to United States
In 2012, it was reported that Singapore had a very low birth rate of 7.72 births per 1,000 residents. The Department of Statistics, Singapore also reported a crude death rate of 3.41 deaths per 1,000 residents for the year of 2012. Some major health issues that contribute to the death rate are cancer, heart diseases, and pneumonia. The Ministry of Health states that an average of 5.3% of a Singaporean’s monthly income is spent on healthcare expenses (Ministry of Health (MOH) Singapore, 2011). That is about 3.9% of their GDP (Central Intelligence Agency, 2013).
Singapore’s birth rate falls shortly behind the United States. Currently, the birth rate in the United States is at 13.7 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate is at 8.4 deaths per 1,000 people. According to the CIA World Factbook, in 2009 the United States spent 16.2% of its GDP on health expenditures. That percentage is four times greater than the amount Singapore spent (Central Intelligence Agency, 2013). Some of the major health issues that contribute to the death rate and healthcare expenditures are similar to that of Singapore. Like Singaporeans, the major health issues that affect Americans are heart diseases, cancers, and respiratory illnesses (Kulas, 2011). Healthcare Delivery System
According to a survey conducted by Royal Philips Electronics, only 20% of the people that responded have annual health examinations because the majority feels they are already in good health (Royal Philips Electronics, 2013). When people need to go for health care, the country of Singapore and the Ministry of Health has designed a system of services to help promote health and provide services in a cost-effective manner. For primary health services like health screenings, immunizations, outpatient treatments, and medical follow-ups, Singaporeans can be seen by a physician at one of 18 polyclinics or at a private medical clinic (Ministry of Health (MOH) Singapore, 2013). Aside from the clinics, citizens can also be referred to hospitals for more specialized treatments. Besides clinics and hospitals, the healthcare system in Singapore comprises of dental services, intermediate and long term care facilities, residential intermediate and long term care...