Glass Ceiling Effect on Organizations

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TO STUDY THE PREVAILING BIAS AGAINST GENDER IN ORGANIZATIONS -------------------------------------------------

Gender issues have always been a matter of concern since ancient times. As a matter of fact, war between the two sexes has been on since human evolution. With the growth of mankind the picture of society took a makeover and influx of women invaded the male world. Equality had been an issue even then and is till now a matter of debate. Human workplace also falls under this paradigm and is one of the most frequently talked about topic with respect to equality between males and females. Discrimination between the two sexes includes both men and women as victims of discrimination. But research shows greater evidence for women to have been seen as suffers largely in different fields. During the past 2 decades there has been an increase in the no. of women working in orgs. (Davidson and Cooper; 1992, 1993). It has been seen that women enter orgs with the same expectations and credentials as males but after that point their path seem to diverge (Morrison, 1987).Though equally qualified they don’t achieve high managerial posts as their male counterparts (Morrison and von Glinow, 1990). Moreover, a relative failure in women to move to the ranks of senior managers in both public and private sectors in developed countries has been documented (Adler and Izraeli, 1988). Gender inequality and discrimination is a matter of great concern. to understand and this entire subject let us first view discrimination in the context of gender differences... Discrimination involves action toward individuals on the basis of their group membership; Baron and Byrne (1994) defined discrimination as prejudice in action. Discrimination can take a very overt form (e.g., refusal to hire women into certain jobs), but in many instances, gender discrimination involves the degree to which the workplace is open to versus resistant to the participation of women. Although many discussions of gender discrimination have focused on the ways managers and supervisors treat men and women, gender discrimination could involve managers, co-workers, subordinates, clients, or customers. In general, gender discrimination include behaviours occurring in the workplace that limit the target person’s ability to enter, remain in, succeed in, or progress in a job and that are primarily the result of the target person’s gender.  Perspectives on gender discrimination in organizations:-

In order to study gender discrimination many psychologists worked on the basic perspectives of discrimination and gender identity. A group of psychologists gave s set approach which involves two different way of viewing a situation. The two approaches are person-centred and situation-centred approach. In person centred approach attributes like physical appearance, masculinity or femininity are basic reasons for outcomes when person-centred employees are employed. Whereas, in situation centred approach explanations deal with characteristics of the situation. For example, in certain cultures there could be stereotypes relating to gender resulting in a particular form of behaviour being projected toward genders, usage of language and communication style affecting people to behave differently with males and females. Other group of psychologists gave a different set of theories to explain differences between males and females. These are the biological, the socialization models, and structural approaches. Let us see what these approaches have to say… Biological perspective: biological perspective assumes that there are implicit differences between men and women. These differences are said to underlie hormonal and physical factors. These...
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