Glacier and Citrus College Chapter

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ESCI 118 – Physical Geography
Citrus College
Chapter 17 – Solution Processes and Karst Topography

1. How does carbonic acid form?
It forms when water and carbon dioxide combine and react.

2. What is meant by dissolution?
Dissolution is the action of being dissolved.

3. What kinds of rock are most susceptible to solution processes? Why? Limestone and dolomite are most susceptible to solution processes because the water, which is slightly acidic, reacts with rock and dissolves the co2 gas carrying away or dissolving some of the sediment.

4. How does the underground structure of the bedrock influence the dissolution process? Bedrock that is made of carbonate is more susceptible to being dissolved as the rock is much more easily broken down.

5. How is it possible for percolating groundwater to both erode and deposit? It can erode most weak rock and the heavier can be broken off, carried with the water flow until the velocity drops and the rock is deposited elsewhere.

6. What is the importance of jointing and bedding planes to the underground structure of caverns? Where joints and bedding planes are, there is usually more caverns and this is because they allow water to penetrate through small cracks.

7. Describe and explain the formation of speleothems such as stalactites, stalagmites, and columns. Speleothems are formed by the accumulation of compounds left by percolating water.

8. In what kinds of rocks does karst topography usually develop? It usually develops in limestone or other easily decomposed rocks.

9. Explain how a sinkhole is formed.
A sink hole is formed when land underneath erodes and creates a depression.

10. Describe the formation of a collapsed sinkhole and a uvala. A collapsed sinkhole is created when the roof of a cavern falls through and usually leaves over hanging cliffs. An uvala’s are chains of csinkholes.

11. Describe the characteristics of tower karst.

It is a residual karst feature that forms very steep sided hills. They can have lots of caves.

12. Why is there a scarcity of surface drainage in karst areas? This is because the limestone is easily eroded and porous that it percolates.

13. What is a swallow hole? A disappearing stream?
A swallow hole is a subterranean passage formed by the collapse of a cavern roof. It leads to a stream flowing into it and into an underground or cave river system. This stream that does so is a disappearing stream.

14. What is hydrothermal activity?
Hydrothermal activity is when heated waters from under the surface erupts over the surface.

15. What are the differences among a hot spring, a geyser, and a fumarole? What causes these differences? A hot spring has intermittent spurts of hot water. A geyser, much like a hot spring, tends to erupt far more often. A fumarole is a surface crack connected to a heat source and has not much water.

16. Briefly explain the eruption sequence of a typical geyser. Groundwater seeps into the reservoirs where it is heated and eventually the pressure is so high, the water flashes to steam and erupts out.

17. What three conditions are necessary in order for hydrothermal features to develop? 1. there must a system of underground channels in a vertical neck or a system of channels. 2. Deep water in the system must be in close contact with the magma. 3. Water must come in contact with silica.

18. What is the importance of jointing and bedding planes to the development of hot springs and geysers? Jointing and bedding planes help in developing hot springs and geysers as they allow water to penetrate and percolate down into the underground water systems. ESCI 118 – Physical Geography

Citrus College
Chapter 18 – The Topography of Arid...
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