According to some archaeologists, the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia had its first settlements dating back since 10,000 BCE. Due to this, it is considered as one of the birthplace of civilizations. Mesopotamia was also known as “the country between two rivers.” (Chilvers, 2007) These two rivers that surrounded this fertile land were the Tigris and the Euphrates. I believe that both rivers were one of the significant environmental factors that contributed to the development of the ancient civilization known as Mesopotamia. (Hollar, 2011) The Tigris and Euphrates rivers start out in the mountains of Armenia. They are almost parallel to each other until they merge creating the Shatt al-Arab waterway which then empties to the Persian Gulf. The southern parts of these rivers are calmer, witnessed by the fertile soil that it produces. The Tigris is considerably shorter than the Euphrates, but was found to be more of importance commercially due to it being deeper. Bigger boats were able to travel here compared to the flat-bottomed ones that passed through the Euphrates. (Chilvers, 2007) The peoples of this region greatly depended and benefited from these rivers. It produced a land for them to be able to thrive and survive. The earliest of these peoples were known as the Sumerians.
The Sumerians relied heavily on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for their agriculture and irrigation needs. They created a system that included cultivating and cropping. Along with proper irrigation and organized labor, they were able to take advantage of the fertile land. By doing this, they were able to produce a surplus of food that enabled them to stay in one place rather than migrating to different regions. They produced crops such as wheat and barley on a large scale. With the massive production of crops, not only did they have enough to feed themselves but they also had enough that enabled them to start on the domestication of animals. They raised different kinds of animals,...
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