Give a detailed analysis of the metaphysical structures of Being.
Metaphysical structures are the composition and internal modes of being and essence, viz. act and potency; form and matter; substance and accident; essence and existence. Each thing possesses a power to become what its form has set as its end. Being is difficult to define. The principle of potency and act solves the problem of permanence and change (one and many). Aristotle (384 – 322 B. C.), held that beings which change are real and intelligible, for they contain within themselves the forms. Form and matter constitute one thing, substance, a composite thing thus what we experience are not photocopies but real things in concrete, real substances. Accident means to inhere upon or subsist in something. So wherever one experiences a thing it is composed of form and matter. Essence is what a thing is. It can be as an individual or shared. Existence means being in space and time, making a thing manifest in concrete as this or individual. “The principle of act and potency is that which comes to be (becomes) was neither being actually nor simply nothing.” Act is the ability, “to be.” There is no exact word rendering the meaning of act. As such, act, action, actuality, perfection, determination expresses the various meanings of actus.” In scholastic language, act means, “an actual being, determination (in their widest sense).” In order to have the actual statue (act), it is necessary for the sculptor to act on a substance which is not yet a statue. The sculptor has the power, by his action, to carve the marble into the form of a statue. “Potency means an aptitude to change, to act or to be acted upon, to give or to receive some new determination.” The statue exists potentially in the block of marble, because marble has an aptitude to receive the shape of a statue, but which has potency to become one. In general, potency has no meaning, and cannot be defined except through the corresponding act....
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