`The aims and methods of Cavour were completely different from those of Mazzini.' How far do you agree with this judgement?
The key issue is the comparison of Cavour and Mazzini. Answers should be reasonably balanced in their treatment of the two men. 60:40 either way can deserve any mark band; 70:30 will normally lead to the award of one band lower than would otherwise be given. The 11-13 band will require a basic knowledge and understanding of one man. Answers in the 22-25 band will be fully comparative. They will differentiate between aims and methods and support the argument by sound knowledge. Most candidates, even in this band, can be expected to agree with the claim in the question but credit should be given to candidates who are aware of some common ground, e.g. both wished to make Italy an independent state and saw Austria as the major stumbling block. 19-21 answers will show good qualities but will be less impressive, perhaps by lacking a distinction between aims and methods or by pursuing a more uneven comparison. There will be some comparison in the 16-18 answers but the approach will be mostly descriptive or narrative. The emphasis on narrative will probably be characteristic of answers in the 11-13 and 14-15 mark bands. In their aims, Mazzini always sought the unification of all of the Italian peninsula. Cavour began by seeking to make Piedmont a more important and extended state in northern Italy and was initially reluctant to embrace the southern states. Mazzini was a democratic republican. Cavour was a monarchist whose ideas of democracy were more limited. Mazzini wished Italians to gain independence by themselves; Cavour aimed to win European support for his designs. In methods, Mazzini embraced revolutionary methods, for example in the 1830s and in 1848. He tried to build an alliance of all classes although he failed to do so. Cavour began by strengthening Piedmont. He opposed revolutions but manipulated plebiscites to give the appearance of...
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