M.K. Ghose a,*, A.K. Dikshit b, S.K. Sharma c
a Regional Remote Sensing Service Center, ISRO, IIT Campus, Kharagpur 721 302, India b Centre of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India c Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India
Uncontrolled growth of the urban population in developing countries in recent years has made solid waste management an important issue. Very often, a substantial amount of total expenditures is spent on the collection of solid waste by city authorities. Optimization of the routing system for collection and transport of solid waste thus constitutes an important component of an eﬀective solid waste man- agement system. This paper describes an attempt to design and develop an appropriate storage, collection and disposal plan for the Asansol Municipality Corporation (AMC) of West Bengal State (India). A GIS optimal routing model is proposed to determine the minimum cost/distance eﬃcient collection paths for transporting the solid wastes to the landﬁll. The model uses information on population density, waste generation capacity, road network and the types of road, storage bins and collection vehicles, etc. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool by municipal authorities for eﬃcient management of the daily operations for transporting solid wastes, load balancing within vehicles, managing fuel consumption and gen- erating work schedules for the workers and vehicles. The total cost of the proposed collection systems is estimated to be around 80 million rupees for the ﬁxed cost of storage bins, col- lection vehicles and a sanitary landﬁll and around 8.4 million rupees for the annual operating cost of crews, vehicles and landﬁll main- tenance. A substantial amount (25 million rupees/yr) is currently being spent by AMC on waste collection alone without any proper storage/collection system and sanitary landﬁll. Over a projected period of 15 yr, the overall savings is thus very signiﬁcant.
Technological development, globalization and popula- tion growth have accelerated the dynamics of the urbaniza- tion process in developing countries. In India alone, the urban population has increased from 11% in 1901 to 26% in 2001. The rapid growth rates of many cities, combined with their huge population base, has left many Indian cities deﬁcient in infrastructure services like water supply, sewer- age and solid waste management.
Due to a lack of serious eﬀorts by town/city authorities, the management of garbage has become a tenacious prob- lem, notwithstanding the fact that the largest part of any municipal expenditure is allotted to it. It is estimated that the urban local bodies spend about 500 rupees (1 US$ = 45 rupees approx.) per ton on solid waste collec- tion, transport and disposal, which may rise to 1500 rupees per ton in some instances. A substantial amount of the total expenditure (85%) is spent on collection and as such improvement in the design of the collection systems could result in substantial savings, thereby saving a large propor- tion of the funds. However just collecting the waste from diﬀerent parts of city does not solve the problem, it requires disposing the waste in environmentally safe and economically sustainable
manner. An eﬀective solid waste management system is needed to ensure better human health and safety. In general, an eﬀective solid waste management system should include one or more of the following options: waste collection and transportation; resource recovery through waste processing; waste transportation without recovery of resources, i.e., reduction of volume, toxicity, or other physical/chemical properties of waste to make it suitable for ﬁnal disposal; and disposal on land, i.e.,...