Introduction to Ghana
Prof Song Xian dao
Lawrence Ampem Darko(王芳)
• Geographical location and regions
o Post colonization
• Education and languages
Geographical Location and Regions
Ghana is located in the western part of Africa, on the Greenwich meridian and some nautical miles from the equator, so technically Ghana is located in the middle of the world.
Ghana shares its borders with Cote D’ivoire to the west, Burkina Faso to the north, Togo to the east and the Gulf of Guinea to the south. All its neighbors are francophone countries but Ghana is an Anglophone country.
There are ten regions in Ghana, these are Upper West, Upper East, Northern Region, Brong Ahafo, Ashanti Region, Volta Region, Western Region, Central Region, and Greater Accra Region.
The capital city of Ghana is Accra, which is located in the Greater accra region.
Ghana has a population of about 23million.
The Portuguese were the first to arrive in contemporary Ghana. Their original plot was to find another route to India. By 1471, they had reached the area that was to become known as the Gold Coast because it was an important source of gold. The Portuguese interest in trading for gold, ivory, and pepper so increased that in 1482 the Portuguese built their first permanent trading post on the western coast of present-day Ghana. This fortress, a trade castle called São Jorge da Mina, was constructed to protect Portuguese trade from European competitors.
The Portuguese position on the Gold Coast remained secure for over a century. During that time, Lisbon sought to monopolize all trade in the region in royal hands, though appointed officials at São Jorge, and used force to prevent English, French, and Dutch efforts to trade on the coast. After Barent Eriksz successfully sailed to the Gold Coast in 1591, Dutch merchants began trading in the area. Pieter de Marees's publications greatly increased the interest of merchants in the region.
After the Twelve Years's Truce ended in 1621, the Dutch West India Company was established, which tried to seize the Portuguese colonies in Africa and America as part of the Groot Desseyn plan. After failing in 1625, the company managed to capture Elmina Castle from the Portuguese in 1637. Fort San Sebastian at Shama and Fort Santo Antonio at Axim followed in 1640 and 1642 respectively.
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