Running head: Gestational Hypertension
Many believe that child birth is part of the cycle of a women’s life. The majority of women have minimal complications with natural child birth but to some the process may be life threatening. Past statistics have shown a high rate of child birth mortality. Today, this rate has decreased with the advancement of the medical field. However, women all over the world are still facing different kinds of complications during pregnancy such as hypertension, diabetes, and preterm labor (Lhynnelli, 2010). A woman’s body undergoes numerous systemic changes to accommodate a growing fetus. Studies show that there are a number of factors that can have a negative effect on one’s reproductive system. The most common examples are exposure to chemicals, radiation, or diseases that can affect fertility or cause birth defects (Ricci & Kyle, 2009). The purpose of this paper is to better understand gestational hypertension and its effect on child birth. Basic Conditioning Factors
Ms. PB is a 19 year old, female student who is majoring in business administration. Her obstetrical diagnosis was significant for gestational hypertension with a blood pressure reading of 145/ 92 when she was brought in to the labor and delivery floor. Oxytocin and transcervical Foley catheter were used for induction of labor. The fetus was found to be in vertex position by digital examination. She was at 39 weeks gestation. The membrane was ruptured during the course of induction in standard clinical fashion. At approximately 6:10 pm, Ms. PB had an emergency cesarean section due to failure to progress in dilation and fetal intolerance to labor. A six pound 12 ounce baby boy was born at 6:40 pm. Ms. PB’s partner recalls that their baby was wide awake and did not cry at all when he came out.
Ms. PB’s age, 19, places her in Erickson’s stage of intimacy versus isolation. In this stage, “young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation” (Potter & Perry, 2008). Ms. PB is in the intimacy stage of her life; she has a loving and supportive family consisting of her mother, sister, partner, and friends. They were seen visiting her and seemed genuinely happy to their new addition in the family. Ms. PB was calm and very cooperative at all times during the postpartum period. She also communicated and asked a lot of questions regarding her baby to the medical staff. She was eager to learn everything about her new baby boy.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Involved Organs
The female reproductive system is very unique and carries out several functions during pregnancy. It includes the internal organs, the external organs also known as the vulva, and the mammary glands. The female internal organs include: the vagina, the uterus, the ovaries, and the fallopian tubes. The vagina is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body. The uterus is a hallow pear shaped organ where the fetus develops. It consists of two parts; the cervix which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the corpus that expands to hold the developing fetus. The ovaries, also known as the female gonads are about the size and shape of an almond which produces eggs and female hormones. They are located just above the fallopian tubes on both sides of the uterus. The fallopian tubes are narrow tubes that are connected to the upper part of the uterus and provide a passage way for the ova to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Conception usually occurs in the ampulla of the fallopian tubes where the male sperm meets the ovum. When a sperm infiltrates an ovum, fertilization takes place. The fertilized egg then travels to the uterus where it implants itself into the lining of the uterine wall called endometrium. Pregnancy occurs and lasts...
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