Verb Form: Gerund or Infinitive
The gerund is the –ing form of a verb. The infinitive is the to form of a verb. Compare these lists. • • Gerunds: sketching, painting, weaving, planning Infinitives: to sketch, to paint, to weave, to plan
One of the most common ways to use gerunds and infinitives is as the direct object of a verb; for example, in the sentence She loves painting, the gerund painting is the direct object. Some verbs can only be followed by gerunds; others can only be followed by infinitives. There are no clear rules for which verbs take each verb form, so you may want to consult a good dictionary. You will also find that you memorize the verbs that you use the most. Common verbs that take only infinitives (to forms) as verbal direct objects agree decide expect hesitate learn need promise neglect hope want plan attempt propose intend pretend
I hope to go on a museum tour soon. (NOT: I hope going on a museum tour soon.) He promised to go on a photography trip. (NOT: He promised going on a photography trip.) She was nervous, so she hesitated to speak. (NOT: She was nervous, so she hesitated speaking.) Common verbs that take only gerunds (-ing forms) as verbal direct objects admit appreciate avoid burst out (crying) consider contemplate delay deny detest dislike endure enjoy escape excuse face feel like finish forgive give up (can’t) help imagine involve keep (on) leave off mention mind miss postpone practice put off resent resist risk (can’t) stand suggest understand
They always avoid drinking before welding. (NOT: They always avoid to drink before welding.) I recall asking her which aperture to use. (NOT: I recall to ask her which aperture to use.) She put off buying a new painting. (NOT: She put off to buy a new painting.) Common verbs that can take gerunds or infinitives as verbal direct objects with no change in their meaning advise allow can’t bear begin continue feel* forbid go hate hear* intend like love notice* observe* permit prefer...
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